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History > Documents

submitted by Karavitiko Symposium, Sydney on 15.02.2005

FLAG - Karavitiko Symposium, Sydney.

The official flag of the Karavitiko Symposium.

Deigned by world-reknowned vexillographer and vexillologist, George C Poulos, the symbolism of the flag is very simple.

The central orange orb (Pantone 130) symbolises both the bright Karavas and Kytherian Sun, and "Portokalia tou Karava" - one of the prime symbols of Karavas - immortalised by the song - "Portokalia tou Karava".

The fimbriated (bordered) cross - George uses to designate the Cross of Ayios Haralambos, the patron saint of the village of Karavas.

The horizontal white lines symbolise the numerous underground springs in Karavas.

And the entire design is a whimsical re-interpretation of the Greek National Flag, with the "Greek Cross" positioned to the centre.

Naval quality, 6ft x 3ft (180 cm's x 90 cm's) Karavitiko Symposium Flags are available for purchase from the Committee of the Karavitiko Symposium for A$85.00.
Click on the Karavitiko Symposium name above (in green) to order.

History > Documents

submitted by Damian N. Andronicus on 26.01.2005

Stamps. Hermes head. Circulated from 1865.

"On 21 May 1864 (2 June, Gregorian) the Ionian State became part of the Kingdom of the Greeks, but it was not until 21 December (2 January 1865 Greg.) that new cancellers (see previous entry, this section), and the first large heads of Hermes came into use in all the islands".

From, The Seventh Island: A Short Philatelic History of Kythira.

BULLETIN OF THE HELLENIC PHILATELIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN.
Volume 17. No. 64. Fourth Quarter, 1986. pp.62-67.
[ISSN 0950-3102]

by Damian N Andronicus


See article in History, subsection, Archive/Research.

History > Documents

submitted by Damian N. Andronicus on 26.01.2005

Stamps. Cancellations from the Ionian Islands.

Cancelled stamps from the various Ionian Islands. Numbers allotted to the Greek Ionian Islands began with 106 for Kerkyra ending with 112 for Kythira - (far right).

From, The Seventh Island: A Short Philatelic History of Kythira.

BULLETIN OF THE HELLENIC PHILATELIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN.
Volume 17. No. 64. Fourth Quarter, 1986. pp.62-67.
[ISSN 0950-3102]

by Damian N Andronicus


See article in History, subsection, Archive/Research.

History > Documents

submitted by Dean Coroneos on 14.02.2012

Olympic Club of Sydney, New South Wales. Annual Magazine. 1948.

From Sport and the Australian Greek,
Dr. Steve Georgakis
Standard Publishing House Pty Ltd
Rozelle, Sydney.
2000.

Note the Clubs motto - which literally translated means - Healthy mind..and..Healthy body.

Sydney Olympic Club

Brief History


Through Nick Fisher’s connections in Sydney, Melbourne Olympic Club (MOC) members travelled to Sydney to play against Greek youth in Sydney who, up until then, had not formed a sporting club but who met on the weekends at Queens Park, Bondi Junction, playing rugby league and cricket. During the Christmas period of 1945, 15 members of MOC competed against Greek youth of Sydney in cricket, athletics and table tennis. After travelling by train to Sydney, MOC were picked up by their billets, as organised by Cypriot Aristedes. Kastellorizans Con Mangos and Con Kanis were billeted out with Kastellorizan relatives. GOCS hired the services of sporting coach Roy Ascot to guide the sporting proceedings. Ascot, a non Greek, eventually became full-time salaried coach for SOC. On 26 December 1945, MOC practised at Rushcutters Bay Park for the cricket match which took place the following day. This occasion marked the first interstate official cricket match between Greek youth clubs in Australia. MOC easily defeated the Sydney select team, before a round of social activities including a visit to church and a farewell function at Archbishop Timotheos’ house prior to their departure.

Given the example and success of MOC, Greek Orthodox Community Sports, (GOCS) was now motivated to form their own properly organised Greek youth club.64 In February, 1946, a steering committee was set up, consisting of senior members of the GOCS, including Andrew Aristedes and Jack Angelides. After the hiring of coach Ray Ascot, a general meeting at Agia Triada Church was called for 27 February 1946 to elect a committee and ratify a constitution. [1] Second generation Kytherans, Con Mottee, Nick Marcells, Bill Psaltis and Ithakan Leo Raptis who was president for the first three years were the main proponents of the new club. Raptis, although only 22 years old was already on the GOCS committee. By early 1946, SOC were playing cricket at Rushcutters Bay against each other. Their first trial game took place when they beat North Katoomba by 180 runs. The game was organised through the efforts of the GOCS and Peter Tzortzopoulos, co-owner of the Niagra and Savoy cafes in Katoomba and a prominent member of the Katoomba golf club. Apart from gaining wide publicity from the local Katoomba newspaper Advertiser the whole management of the GOCS were present including president of the committee, Arthur George. [2] Later that day at the Greek owned Niagra Cafe, the GOCS committee presented the players with white shirts embroidered with the emblem of the SOC. It read “Sydney Olympic Athletic Club” (founded 1946 by the Greek Orthodox Community NSW).

In the 1946-47 cricket season, the SOC entered a cricket team into competition, registering their first win in the Metropolitan Churches Centennial Park Cricket Competition defeating Prescott outright. [3] In 1946, the club organised a dance at the Paddington Town Hall, to raise money for the team going to Melbourne to play the MOC in the Christmas break. This first Melbourne interstate visit involved contests in cricket, track and field and tennis. The team left Sydney on 23 December 1946 and returned 3 January 1947. A two day cricket match at Como Park saw the defeat of SOC team captained by George Stell, formerly of the Paddington Police Boys Club coached by Cohn McKould.

Sporting exchanges between the two clubs increased, the most successful being during the Christmas season of 1949, when SOC defeated MOC, for the first time and won the Hellemc Shield, donated by the Hellenic Club NSW, as they had been victorious in three of the five events. SOC defeated MOC in cricket at Moore Park (Fisher Shield), table tennis at St. Sophia School Hall (Angelides Shield), and swimming at the Coogee Aquarium. MOC won both tennis at Waverly Park (A.T. George Shield), and athletics at Redfern Oval (Polites Shield). New Year’s Eve celebrations and Presentation Night were both held at Paddington Town Hall.

Not until the 12 April 1952, did females of MOC and SOC compete at Moore Park in Sydney with the MOC team winning the netball match (22-10). From SOC’s inception until 1951, the club played predominantly Rugby League, cricket and netball, with their annual games usually taking place during the Australia Day Long Weekend period in January. The annual games also served as selection trials for the interstate visits, and were held at athletic tracks with spectators.

The official organ of the SOC was its monthly VOD (Voice Of Diskobolos) which first appeared in June 1947, its first editor being Nick Marcells. The club’s shield appeared on the front of the magazine with the slogan “healthy mind, healthy body”. [4} Every issue proclaimed that:

The Olympic Club represents Greek Youth of NSW, and its purpose is to keep together Greek Youth. We ourselves have parents who came from Greece, our children will be less Greek in the environment we are in. They may, as already many have, lose entirely their Greek identity. We believe that the Olympic Club must continue to keep together Australian-born Greeks.

Apart from sporting articles, the magazine printed articles on literature and art. The regular 16 page issue was distributed by mail to subscribing club members. The club’s social events which invariably took the form of social dances were advertised. Monthly dances were usually held at the Coronet on George Street. The annual ball and the two presentation nights (one for the summer sports season and one for winter sports season) were held at the Paddington Town Hall. At the presentation nights, trophies were presented to the various teams and athletes by the Archbishop, speeches were made by senior members of the Greek society and there were very few females in attendance.

A typical year of the activities of the club was 1949, with two teams in the cricket competition. Similarly to the situation with MOC, the SOC cricket teams were the most significant of their teams. After winning the Eastern division, the SOC team entered the final of the Churches’ Cricket Union C grade Competition where they played against the winners of 12 other divisions. The C grade junior cricket team won the state premiership, defeating 104 metropolitan teams, and talented players were Con Mottee and George Stell.
The netball team defeated Maroubra in the NSW Premiers Association. The team was made up by J.Varvaressos, T.Stanley, M.Marcels, L.Coombes, N.Limbers, L.Varvaressos, K.Casimaty, I.Rafty and D.Katsoulis. Social events organised by female members included two reviews, a production of their original musical comedy Sproxenia, written by George Stell, a fancy dress ball and monthly dances.

By 1951 the club celebrated its fifth birthday with an artoclassia (a religious celebration: blessing of the bread) at the Holy Trinity Church on 2 December, 1951, the ceremony performed by Archbishop Theophylactos. The first annual ball was held at the Roman Showboat on 4 December, 1951.

Yet new immigrants were not attracted to club membership. An essay competition, “How to bring old and new Greeks together and the best way to do it” was organised and sponsored by the GOCS. Prominent members of the community were the judges.69 Still the club was unable to attract post-War new arrivals and SOC remained interested in only the second generation (Australian born) Greeks.

With news of MOC’s visit to Sydney in 1945, a meeting was called to select players for the Sydney team. [6] Kastellorizan Johny Johns believed that coach Ray Ascot discriminated against and excluded Kastellorizan youth. Johny Johns informed the Kastellorizan society of this and a meeting was called at Jack Charamis’s “PLEASU” city cafe attended by about 100 Kastellorizan youths and priest George Kateris. This meeting elected Angelo Karp, a WWII airforce veteran as a steering president. Subsequently Karp recommended that both youth clubs (KSC and SOC) amalgamate, but members of the club rejected the proposal, so he resigned. The first committee included Jack Charamis (president), Con Vallianos (vice president), John Economos (secretary) and George Alexiou (treasurer).

The success of MOC’s visit to Sydney in December 1945 also stimulated the Kastellorizan Brotherhood to form their own youth club, at the same time as SOC was being formed. [Georgakis then ventures into a history of the Kastellorizan Sports Club]
Therefore the Kastellorizan Sports Club was formed in January, 1946 when the Kastellorizan Brotherhood raised 500 pounds to buy a club house and gymnasium for the newly formed KSC.

Rugby league was the chosen game as many of the boys were familiar with the sport as they had played the game at state primary and high schools. For example Luke Lucas, Basil Anthony and Con Vallianos had attended Cleveland Street Junior High School. Most of the boys knew each other from Saint Sofia Church and the Greek school. For the first few months, the team trained twice weekly at Queens Park under coach Johnny Johns. [7] He had been an avid Rugby League player and supporter in his youth.

The first KSC team formed was a Rugby League team which played its first game on 29 April 1946 when it defeated the John Hunter Shoe Company, a work place team, at Arncliffe Riverside Park. George Netes, an employee of the shoe company had organised the game.

In its first year, the team played against any team available, including once, a side of jockeys. Johnny Johns, a provedore at the fish markets, was successful in obtaining the coaching services of former Rugby League Kangaroo International player Joe Pearce.........(end, bottom, page 155).


1. Where directly not referenced this section on the Sydney Olympic Club (SOC) is from interviews conducted with
Nick Marcells, George Stell, Bill Psaltis, Leo Raptis, Con Mottee.
2. Ethnikon Vema, 20 February 1946, p.4.
3. Hellenic Herald, 28 March 1946, p.4.
4. ibid., 17 October 1946, p.4.
5. Voice of Diskobolos, June 1947, Vol.1, No.1.
6. Hellenic Herald, 13 December 1951, p.3.
7. Where directly not referenced this section on the Kastellonzan Sports Club (KSC) is based on interviews conducted
with former members Con Vallianos, Jack Vallianos, Johnny Economos

Dr. Steve Georgakis is a second-generation Australian, born in the Sydney suburb of Balmain, the son of immigrants from Epiros in Greece. Educated at Fort Street High School and the University of Sydney, he followed a First-Class Honours degree in Education (Human Movement and Health) with a PhD in Education. In earlier years Dr. Steve Georgakis played professional soccer with Sydney Olympic SC and the Marconi SC. Between 1986 and 1992, he represented Australia in successively the Under 16, the Under 20, and the Olyroo national teams. For two years he was an associate lecturer and in 1999 he was awarded a post-doctoral scholarship, in the Faculty of Education at the University of Sydney.

Membership of the club for 1947, indicates that the preponderance were of Kytherian origin.


1947
MEMBERS

ADAMS, Helen.
ADAMS, Lillian.
ANTIPAS, Jeanette.
ANTIPAS, Kathleen.
ANTIPAS. Rent.
ANGELIDES William
ANDREW, Joan
ANDREW, Peter
ANDREW, Poppy.
APOSTLE, Andrew.
APOSTLE, Marie.
ARONEY, Steve.
ASLANIS Minna
ASCOT, Ray.
BARBOUTIS, Mick.
CALPIS, Jack.
CAPOUNAS, Anna.
CAPOUNAS, Mina.
CARIDES, Chris.
CASIMATY, George.
CASIMATY, Motina.
CASIMATY, Mina.
CASSIM, Kathleen.
CASSIMATIS, Nicholas.
CAVALINIS, Kathleen.
CLIMBSON, Edith.
CLIMBSON, Mary.
CONSTANTINE, Con.
CONSTANTINE, Rent.
COMINO, Mary.
CONFOS Con.
CORDARTO, Emmanuel.
CORDELO, Mary.
CREECY, Marie.
DIACOPOULOS, Helen.
DIACOPOULOS, Jack.
DIACOPOULOS, James.
FINOS, Jason.
FINOS Pappy.
GENGOS, Don.
GENGOS, Helen.
GENGOS, Leila.
GEORGE, Effie.
GEORGE, Sue.
GEORGE, John.
GEORGIADIS, John.
GEORGIADIS, Marika.
GEORGIADIS, Stanley.
GIANNIOTIS, Peter.
GEORGIADIS, Sylvia.
GLEESON, Mary.
HOOD, Gloria.
JOANN1DES, Artensis.
JOANNIDES, Sophio.
JOANNIDES, George.
KALLINIKOS, Elizabeth.
KALLIN1KOS, Poppy.
KALOKERINOS, Emmanuel.
KALOKERINOS, Ada.
KALOPEDES, Helen.
KALOPEDES, Mary.
KALOPEDES, Nicholas.
KATSIKAS. George.
KATSOOLIS, Doreen.
KELDOIJLIS, Chris.
KELDOULIS, Chrisanthe.
KELDOULIS, James.
KELDOULIS, Jack.
KEPREOTES, Charles.
KEPREOTES, Doreen.
KEPREOTES, Jack.
KEPREOTES, Nicholas.
KIPRIOTIS, Doris.
KOSTUROS, Nito.
KOULMANDAS, Russell.
KOUVARAS, Olga T.
KOUVARAS, George.
KOUVARAS, Nicholas.
KOUVARAS, Olga M.
LAIRD, Con.
LALAS, Milton.
LALAS, Penelope.
LIMBERS, Con.
LIMBERS, Norma.
LINOS, John.
LINOS, Marion.
MALLOS, Angela.
MALLOS, John.
MARCELLO. George.
MARCELLS, Maria.
MARCELLS, Nicholas.
MARGETIS, George.
MEGALOCONOMOS, George.
MITCHELL, George.
MORRIS, Alec.
MORRIS, Sheila.
MOTTEE, Con P.
MOTTEE Con J
NICHLES, Helen.
NICHLES, James.
NICOLAIDES, Diamantina.
NOTARAS, George.
PALLAS, Jim.
PANARETTO, Basil.
PAPAS, Stephen.
PANDASIS, George.
PAPALEXION, Con.
PAPALEXIQN, Sans.
PETERSON, Marguerita.
PHILLIPS, Eva.
POULOS, Kathleen.
POULOS, Nita.
POULOS, Mary.
PROTOPSALTIS, Con.
PSALTIS, Basil.
PSALTIS, Anne.
PSALTIS, Chriva.
PSALTIS, Detplna.
RAFT, Ida.
RAFT, Penelope.
RAFTOS, Aspasia.
RAFTOS, Jerry.
RAFTOS, Leo.
RAFTOS, Mary.
RAFTOS, Nicholas.
ROSE Stephen.
RONEY, Catherine.
SAKARIS, Sophie.
SARAFIS, Chris.
SCOTT, George.
SERAFIM, George.
SIMOS, Areanthe.
SIMOS, Theodore.
SOULOS, Fifi.
SOULOS, Nita.
STAMELL, Lucy.
STELL, George.
STELL, Kath.
TRAHANAS, Ernest.
VALLAS Mary.
VARVARESSOS, Joan.
VARVARESSOS, Kitty.
VARVARESSOS, Lillian.
VARVARESSOS, Louise.
VARVARESSOS, Maria.
VASSELEU, Kathleen.
VASSELEU, James.
VENES, Joyce.
VENES, Rent.
VLANDIS, Nicholas.
WATTS, Ruth.
ZERVOS, Dorothea.
ZORBAS, James.
ZEORZOPOULOS, George

History > Documents

submitted by Dean Coroneos on 07.01.2005

Kytherian Re-union. Canberra. 17-18 May 2003. Programme.

Numerous Kytherian events occur around the world on a regular basis.

This event was unique. For the first time in more than a century in Australia, an event was organised that had as its prime focus the re-union of Kytherians from around Australia.

It was held in Canberra, at the beautifully appointed, Hellenic Club.

A large photographic exhibition was mounted, and numerous Kytherian artefacts, crafts, tools, and other realia were on display.

The event was organised by the Kytherian Brotherhood of Canberra and Districts.

Chris Lourandos, President
Voula Logothetis, Vice President
John Logothetis, Secretary
Peter Samios, Treasurer
Froso Anousas
Chryssa Frilingos
Popi Manolios
Golfo Pentes
Paul Theodore


Master of Ceremonies for the evening was

Donna Simotas

History > Documents

submitted by Kiriaki Orfanos on 04.01.2005

Immigration Minister Arthur Caldwell's Letter, on behalf of Prime Minister, Ben Chiflley, re: CONSTANTINE SIMOS. 3rd August, 1948.

Caldwell to Chifley.

Commonwealth of Australia

Office of the
Minister for Immigration
Parliament House
Canberra A.C.T.


3rd August, 1948.

My dear Prime Minister,

I refer to your letter of 29th July, in regard to representations made to you by Mr. G. Simos of The Paragon Cafe, Katoomba, on behalf of Mr. Constantine Simos who travelled to Australia under the name of Charles Cassematis and desires to remain here permanently.

I have given this matter furher consideration in the light of the additional information furnished and have decided not to take any action to enforce the departure of Mr. C. Simos from the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth Migration Officer, Sydney, has been instructed to remove all restrictions placed upon Mr. Simons under the Immigration Act.

Yours sincerely,

Arthur A. Caldwell

The Rt. Hon. J. B. Chifley, M.H.R.,
Prime Minister,
Parliament House,
CANBERRA. A. C. T.

Dear Mr Simos,
For your information
[Staffers signature]
6.8.1948.


Prime Minister, J. B. (Ben) Chifley, was born and raised in Bathurst, New South Wales. [See photograph of his family home, in History, subsection, General History].
The Federal electorate which he represented included the town of Katoomba, NSW., which is reasonably close to the town of Bathurst.
Clearly Chifley had frequented the Paragon Cafe, and Mr G Simos was a man well known to him.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 02.01.2005

I Zoi en Afstralia. Title page.

Title page of I Zoi en Afstralia, (Life in Australia), the first book in Modern Greek published in Australia (1916).

See Hugh Gilchrist, Australians and Greeks, Volume II: The Middle Years, pp. 253-257, for an excellent background history on the publication of the book.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 27.12.2004

Xmas Card. Mid 20th century. 1955.

It is difficult for persons born in Australia and the USA in the post Kytherian migration period, to truly appreciate how disruptive and heart-wrenching the breakup of families was during the emigration phase (from Kythera).

Nostalgia for the island, and desire to be with relatives was exacerbated during periods such as Christmas, when most families strive to be together.

This is reflected in Xmas cards, sent back to relatives who remained on Kythera. This card is from my cousin, Helen Zantis (nee, Levantis) & her husband Peter Zantis, to Helens' uncle, Theothoro (Ri-Ri), and Auntie Maria (Mummy, the midwife), in Karavas, Kythera. Dated 25th of December, 1955

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 27.12.2004

Xmas Card. Mid 20th century. 1951.

It is difficult for persons born in Australia and the USA in the post Kytherian migration period, to truly appreciate how disruptive and heart-wrenching the breakup of families was during the emigration phase (from Kythera).

Nostalgia for the island, and desire to be with relatives was exacerbated during periods such as Christmas, when most families strive to be together.

This is reflected in Xmas cards, sent back to relatives who remained on Kythera. This card is from my Uncle Minas, and Auntie Frosso, and children, to Minas' brother, Theothoro (Ri-Ri), and Auntie Maria (Mummy, the midwife), in Karavas, Kythera. Dated 5th of December, 1951

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 18.08.2005

Xmas Card. Mid 20th century.

Xmas Card. Mid 20th century.

It is difficult for persons born in Australia and the USA in the post Kytherian migration period, to truly appreciate how disruptive and heart-wrenching the breakup of families was during the emigration phase (from Kythera).

Nostalgia for the island, and desire to be with relatives was exacerbated during periods such as Christmas, when most families strive to be together.

This is reflected in Xmas cards, sent back to relatives who remained on Kythera. This card is from my first cousin Olympia Harantzis, to her Uncle Theothoro (Ri-Ri), and Auntie Maria (Mummy, the midwife), in Karavas, Kythera. Dated 4th of December, 1955.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 29.11.2004

WWI Allegiance pledge - by 12 Greek shop-keepers in NSW country towns, 1915.

Declaration by 12 Greek shop-keepers (the majority Kytherians) in NSW country towns in 1915, pledging their profits to the Red Cross in the event of Greece enetering the war against the Allies. [From the Emmanuel Andronicus papers.]

"In the event of Greece going against England and the Allies, we the undersigned agree to contribute the whole of our profits to the Red Cross Society as long as the war lasts, or even the whole business concern, on the understanding that they will be handed back to us at the end of the war."

From,

Australians and Greeks Volume II: The Middle Years, p.13. Halstead Press, Sydney. 1997. [See Culture, subsection, Bibliography, for more details on Hugh Gilchrist's, Vol II.]

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 22.11.2004

Letter from son to mother - almost certainly containing money.

The most typical of Kytherian documents in the 20th century.

A registered letter from Australia, from a son to his mother - almost certainly containing money (why bother registering a conversational letter) - to help sustain the family in Karavas, Kythera.

Posted, 23rd April, 1960.

From: George Levantis, then at, 126 Auburn Street in Goulburn, NSW, where he conducted a fruit shop business for many years.

To: His mother Katina Levantis, in Karavas, Kythera, Greece.

Katina was one of the older daughters of George and Olympia Hlihlis Tzortzopoulos, Karavas, Kythera.
{For entry, and family history details search under Tzortzopoulos.)

Katina, and husband Andoni would migrate to Australia, soon afterwards, and also establish themselves in Goulburn.

Katina was the older sister of my father, Costandinos Tzortzopoulos, Con Poulos, of Gilgandra, NSW.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 10.11.2004

Walgett. Luxury Theatre. Opening Programme, 1937. Obverse side. Conomos Brothers. Commentary by Les Tod.

The Luxury Theatre was built by the Conomos Brothers to replace their operation in the School of Arts Hall. The Luxury opened in April 1937, with the film Born to Dance. It was licensed 30.4.37 to seat 500.

The theatre was quite large, being three storeys high, with a dress circle. It cost £8,000 to build, using 375,000 bricks. Architect was Bruce Dellit, of the Sydney Liberty and Minerva fame, as well as the Hyde Park Memorial.

Builder was Jack King, and the contractor Bill Mason. The theatre was in art deco style, with gold velour curtains supplied by Grace Bros, Broadway. On opening night they actually squeezed 1,100 into the theatre, despite its capacity of 500.

CinemaScope was installed around 1955, and Bausch and Lomb lenses used.

The theatre remained under their control until it was destroyed by fire in 1979, in a conflagration that took all that side of the main street with it, the fire getting completely out of control.

Note that all those who contributed to the building are listed on this programme.

From notes made in 1985, by Mr Les Tod.

Copy of Programme also supplied by Les Tod.

Les Tod is a cinema historian. His contributed to the preservation of "Kytherian" and Hellenic Cinema's in NSW has been alluded to in other entries. Particularly influential was a report he co-authored with Ross Thorne and Kevin Cork, to the Australian Heritage Office (NSW), in 1996.

Thorne, Ross, Les Tod & Kevin Cork (1996) Movie Theatre Heritage Register for New South Wales 18,96-1996, Sydney: Department of Architecture, University of Sydney. A National Estate Project for the Heritage Office (NSW) and the Australian Heritage Commission.

For other entries, Search under Tod.

Search's under Cork, and Thorne, will lead to other entries by these two contributors.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 10.11.2004

Walgett. Luxury Theatre. Opening Programme, 1937. Conomos Bros. Commentary by Les Tod.

The Luxury Theatre was built by the Conomos Brothers to replace their operation in the School of Arts Hall. The Luxury opened in April 1937, with the film Born to Dance. It was licensed 30.4.37 to saet 500.

The theatre was quite large, being three storeys high, with a dress circle. It cost £8,000 to build, using 375,000 bricks. Architect was Bruce Dellit, of the Sydney Liberty and Minerva fame, as well as the Hyde Park Memorial.

Builder was Jack King, and the contractor Bill Mason. The theatre was in art deco style, with gold velour curtains supplied by Grace Bros, Broadway. On opening night they actually squeezed 1,100 into the theatre, despite its capacity of 500.

CinemaScope was installed around 1955, and Bausch and Lomb lenses used.

The theatre remained under their control until it was destroyed by fire in 1979, in a conflagration that took all that side of the main street with it, the fire getting completely out of control.

From notes made in 1985, by Mr Les Tod.

Copy of Programme also supplied by Les Tod.

Les Tod is a cinema historian. His contributed to the preservation of "Kytherian" and Hellenic Cinema's in NSW has been alluded to in other entries. Particularly influential was a report he co-authored with Ross Thorne and Kevin Cork, to the Australian Heritage Office (NSW), in 1996.

Thorne, Ross, Les Tod & Kevin Cork (1996) Movie Theatre Heritage Register for New South Wales 18,96-1996, Sydney: Department of Architecture, University of Sydney. A National Estate Project for the Heritage Office (NSW) and the Australian Heritage Commission.

For other entries, Search under Tod.

Search's under Cork, and Thorne, will lead to other entries by these two contributors.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 30.10.2004

Cheque, Paragon Cafe, Katoomba, 1958.

As Kytherian shop keepers became more affluent in the period after WWII, they began to make displays of this new found affluence.

This is reflected in the ornate Art Deco re-furbishment of many of the shops and shop fixtures - but is also manifest in simple things - such as the elaborate and artistic designs of business and Company cheques, for example.

This is cheque from the famous Paragon Cafe in Katooomba, NSW. [There are multiple entries for the Paragon Cafe in the Photography Diaspora, subsection, Cafes, Shops & Cinemas secetion, and other sections, of kythera-family.]

Note that, £1,498.00.00 would have been considered a substantial sum of money at the time.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 29.11.2004

Seal of the autonomous state of Kythera

"During WWI, Venizelos completely disagreed with the neutrality forced upon Greece by foreign interests. He started a revolutionary movement, and Kythera declared its independence. The events, although shortlived, are of historical importance and should be mentioned.

The revolutionary movement, initiated and headed by Venizelos as its President, had Panagiotis Daglis and Admiral Paul Koundouriotis amongst its members. The representatives of the Cretan administration, Karapanos, was sent to the island. At a gathering organised at Potamos, the people of Kythera pledged allegiance to the new government of the national Defence, which proclaimed Thessaloniki as its new capital. Kytherian public servants were called upon to pledge allegiance to the new government. Photographs of the King were removed from public places, and replaced with those of Venizelos. A small number of opposing Kytherians were arrested and exiled to Crete.

Foreign pressure brought about by the allies succeeded in getting agreement between the two governments of Athens abd Thessaloniki. Kythera was to be returned to the government of Athens. To maintain the peace and help with the transition of power, a small British garrison wasto arive on 12th February, 1917.

Although the British were welcomed by the people, the idea of a royalist government taking over the island was not well received. The municipal councils were summoned to Potamos on Thursday, 5th March, 1917, at 11:00 am, and Kythera was declared an autonomous state, with Panagiotis Tsitsilias as the Governor.

Potamos was to be the capital of the new independent state, and all public servants were to swear alligiance to its government. With the uncertainty of this new regime, many public servants, clergy, teachers, and others were convinced of an imminent conflict pointing to an explosive situation.

A new meeting was called at Potamos on 23rd March 1917, to re-evaluate their position, and the community leaders decided to ask the government at Thessaloniki to take charge once again of the island's affairs.

The life of the independent state came to an end when on the 3rd April, 1917, thirty-five police officers from Crete arrived, and law and order was restored. King Constantine was forced to leave Greece by the end of May 1917, and Venizelos formed a new government saving the nation from the calamity of a civil war."

From, Peter D Vanges, Kythera. A history of the island of Kythera and its people. Published and distributed by the

Kytherian Association of Australia,
PO Box 203
Sydney South, 2000.

First edition, 1993.

Hugh Gilchrist also comments on The Kythiran Republic in Chapter III of Australians and Greeks Volume II: The Middle Years, pp.44-45. Halstead Press, Sydney. 1997. [See Culture, subsection, Bibliography, for more details on Gilchrist, Vol II.]

"Early in 1917 several elderly Greek-Australians played an unlikely role as repatriated citizens of Kythira in a miniature politico-military drama.

At that stage of the war, Britain's "Military Control Office" on Syros, aided by the British navy, had persuaded all but one of the islands of the Cyclades to declare allegiance to Venizelos's Provisional Government in Salonika. German submarines, however, continued to take a heavy toll of Allied shipping in the waters south of the Peloponnisos; and, in an effort to reduce these losses, Britain's naval command at Souda Bay on Crete sent Lieut. Lawson and 12 marines to seize Kythira and persuade its inhabitants to adhere to the Venizelist cause.

In the meantime, however, King Constantine's Government in Athhens, under Allied pressure, had agreed to observe strict neutrality in the war, on the condition that no more islands should be handed over to the Venizelists. Unaware of this condition, Lieut. Lawson and his little force had peacefully captured Kythira, two days after the agreement.

When the KIng's Government demanded that Britain adhere strictly to the no-more-transfers condition, the British Minister in Athens ordered Britain's intelligence chief on Syros, Capatin Compton Mackenzie, to return Kythira immediately to the royalist minority there. But the island''s Venizelists - an overwhelming majority - implored Mackenzie to block such action, fearing royalist retribution for having rallied to Venizelos after Lawson's coup.

Mackenzie's efforts to have Kythira excepted from the Allies' pledge were unsuccessful; the government in Athens regarded Kythira, in the hands of Venizelists, as a threat to the royalist army in the Peloponnisos. So, to gain time to work for a change in instructions, Mackenzie obtained permission to send another officer to Kythira to assess the situation there.

Lieut. Arthur, the young officer sent on the mission, reported that Venizelists had thrown a royalist over a cliff, injuring him slightly, and were afraid that if Kythira were returned to royalist control they would face a similar fate, or worse. He also reported finding several British subjects - old men who long ago had been gold-miners at Ballarat, and who, while in Australia, had acquired British nationality. Seizing on this, Mackenzie reported that the return of Kythira to the royalists could result in a massacre of its "British subjects"; and, as he hoped, this caused Prime Minister Balfour to pause and seek further advice.

Lieut. Arthur then reported that the Kythirans, if they could not adhere to Venizelos, would prefer the island to revert to being a British protectorate, as in the days of the Ionian Islands Republic. When Mr Balfour rejected this, MAckenzie pointed out Britain's pledge to King Constantine did not preclude Kythira from becoming an independent state. To this suggestion Venizelos raised no objections, provided that Britain administered the island; and Balfour agreed.

The Kythirans, on learning this, celebrated with enthusiasm, drafted a new constitution, declared a "free and independent republic of Cerigo" and held a presidential election. Their first choice, King George V of Great Britain, was rejected by the British Government, as was their subsequent election of Venizelos. In a third election they chose Compton Mackenzie, who prudently declined. Finally they chose a native Kythiran as President; and the latter, on the advice of his newly-formed "Cabinet", outlawed King Constantine and declared war on Germany and her allies.

Kythira remained a "free and independent republic" for another three months, until Constantine's abdication, when it resumed its allegiance to Greece. Its brief independence, however, would not have occurred, had not a few youthful Kythirans joined a gold rush in faraway Victoria long before, and returned bearing documents of political significance: British passports."

History > Documents

submitted by Spyro Calocerinos on 18.01.2011

The British cruiser Gloucester was sunk near Kythera

As James Prineas provided the photograph of the plaque on a house in Kapsali, it may be appropriate to re-submit the history behind the plaque.

Kythera is a small island just south of Neapolis at the southern tip of Greece. It is also about 50 miles northwest of Cape Spatha in northwest Crete. In the battle for Crete in 1941, the Southampton-class cruiser HMS Gloucester was sunk on the 22nd of May about 15 miles from Kythera, which was already occupied by the Germans. Seven hundred and twenty-three lives were lost, but 78 were saved by small craft manned by Germans, searching for survivors from their own ships. (One report in Britain says that 722 lives were lost and there were 85 survivors).
They were taken to Kapsali where they were placed in a house on the beachfront. They were cold and exhausted, and encrusted in salt and black oil. Apart from the clothes they were wearing they had nothing. Food on the island was short and the islanders went in fear of their lives, but from the horror of one of the worst battles of World War II, comes a story of selfless courage. A number of Kytherians witnessed the sinking of Gloucester including 15 years old Nikos Sotirhos and his friends Yiannis Margetis and others.Despite the curfew and the danger from the German guns, they planned to help the British captives, by collecting eggs, milk, bread, cheese or whatever food from their families and friends.One of the boys spoke a little German and he set out to distract the German guards at the front of the house while the other two came down through the trees behind the house, climbed into the back courtyard and passed the food through a window to the prisoners. For several days the boys kept up their search for food and their dangerous mission of feeding the British captives. When the Germans eased their guard, people from all over the island contributed food, clothes and shoes for the boys to take to the prisoners. By then a number of other boys got involved in collecting food including my late brother Christos and myself. After 10 days the Germans took the men away to spend the rest of the war as prisoners on the mainland. Two of them died in captivity. But for the courage and initiative of a small group of boys, more men might have been lost during those days on Kythera.

In 1984 one of the survivors, John Stevens, formed the "Fighting G Club" to enable survivors, their families and friends to hold annual reunions. The Club attracted its largest attendance in May 1999, after the televising of the documentary "HMS Gloucester - The Untold Story" based on the book by Ken Otter. It was decided that a party of club members would visit Kythera and that was arranged by Betty Birkby, daughter of Gloucester's Captain Rowley, who was the last to leave his ship, but did not survive. The trip was a time to pay tribute to the courage and warmth of generosity to the people of Kythera for the help they had given to the survivors of HMS Gloucester. On a brilliant cloudless day, the party was taken out in the caique "Alexandros" to the site of the war grave. There, a memorial service was held and flowers were scattered on the sea. Prayers, led by the Reverend Alex Mills were said.
"Prayers for peace and understanding between peoples of all nations, in the hope that the hand of friendship would always be extended to ordinary people to their neighbours in other countries. The courage of the people of Kythera in the face of adversity has not been forgotten. The gratitude of the families of the British naval men who landed on the Kytherian shores in 1941, may be belated,but it is sincerely felt. God bless them all."

In 2001 a party of the Fighting G club that included six survivors of the Gloucester sinking, visited Kythera to present a plaque in recognition of the 60th anniversary of the sinking. The plaque was delivered on the type-23 frigate HMS Northumberland and then attached to the outside of the house where the captives had been held. This plaque was unveiled by the British defence attache to Greece, Commodore John Milns, RN. During the three day event, Northumberland at anchor in Kapsali, provided a guard of honour for a parade of veterans, their families and friends and a memorial service was arranged aboard ship.The party then went out to the site of the sinking of Gloucester-which is a dedicated war grave, to allow wreaths and flowers to be laid on the water.
A lot of information was provided by the 2000 Summer Edition "Kythera", also by my good friend Malcolm Wright ex British Captain and BBC reporter. A lot of information was also found on the internet, but I witnessed myself the survivors when they were brought in Kapsali and as a nine year old then, this will be remembered forever.
In an entry on this website under the heading of "Island Photography - Gravestones" a photograph of the plaque that the British attached to the house has been contributed by Peter Tzannes, provided by Helen Magiros.

History > Documents

submitted by Peter Makarthis on 27.06.2004

Milk shakes made by machinery 1900

An early advertisement for the making of milkshakes at Inverell December 1900.I am unsure of the power source as electricity was not generally available until 1910 at Inverell.
Peter Makarthis

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 26.01.2005

Ionikon Kratos - Stamps 1859

These stamps were issued by the Ionikon Kratos [Ionian State??], in 1859.

At the time, the 7 islands of "Ionia" were a "territory" administered by the British.

Refer also to:

The Seventh Island: A Short Philatelic History of Kythira.

BULLETIN OF THE HELLENIC PHILATELIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN.
Volume 17. No. 64. Fourth Quarter, 1986. pp.62-67.
[ISSN 0950-3102]

by Damian N Andronicus


See article in History, subsection, Archive/Research.

History > Documents

submitted by Peter Makarthis on 14.05.2011

S.Peter & Co - Sydney Oyster Saloon

The Sydney Oyster Saloon trading as S.Peter& Co opened for business at 120 Otho Street Inverell NSW in September of 1899. The proprietor, Peter Phacheas(Fatseas) the first Greek business man to open a business in Inverell. This is the original advertisement as seen in the Boggy Camp,Tingha & Bora Creek Miner of 2 September 1899