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submitted by Vikki Vrettos Fraioli on 06.02.2007

WWII Service Certificate - George Peter Vamvakaris (1907-1942)

George was the son of Panayiotis and Maria Alfieris Vamvakaris (1887-1960). from Potamos.
George was killed in World War II while serving in the Australian Army.

See also:

Postcard written by George Peter Vamvakaris

George Vamvakaris’ Naturalization application

Kythera Connections

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 24.02.2007

The Medal of the Municipality of Kythera. Relative size by Australian standards.

Contrasted with the size of an Australian one dollar coin.


[*It is my belief that this medal should be re-named the Kytherian Medal of Honour - Τιμητικό Μετάλλιο Κυθήρων]

Inception and Creation of the Medal of the Municipality of Kythera (1999)

Following a proposal by Municipal Councillor Professor George N Leontsinis, and upon the unanimous agreement of the newly established Municipal Council, it was decided to create the Medal.

The Medal marked a historic moment: the formation of the Municipality of Kythera.

The task of designing the Medal was assigned to sculptor, and Professor of Sculpture at the National Metsovio Polytechnic, George Kalakallas.

Taking into consideration the designs on coins, emblems, offical seals, and other historical records that were provided by the President of the Advisory Committee, Professor Athanasia Glycofrydi-Leontsini, the reknowned sculptor, Professor George Kalakallas, created a medal (gold, silver and bronze) that represents, on the obverse side, a contemporary female figure symbolising Aphrodite/Venus. Elements from ancient coins were used to design this particular Aphrodite/Venus.

On the reverse, is depicted the outline of the island of Kythera, together with a representation of the Chora Fortress, the Livadi Bridge, and the Mytrtidia Monastery.

The very first golden medal was conferred on the President of the Hellenic Republic, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, by the Mayor of Kythera, Artemis Kalligeros, during Konstantinos Stephanopoulos's official visit to Kythera on the 21st May, 2000, on the occasion of the celebration of the Unification of the Heptanese with mainland Greece (21st May 1864).

Adapted from the Booklet - Open University of the Municipality of Kythera. Academic Activities. 1999-2005


Numismatic Terminology

Numismatics (ancient Greek: νομισματική) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. While numismatists are often characterized as studying coins, the discipline also includes the study of banknotes, stock certificates, medals, medallions, and tokens (also referred to as Exonumia).

Exonumia

is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.

Now that we are discussing the Kytherian Medal of Honour, we have moved into the study of exonumia.

Obverse - Front or face side of coin.

Reverse - Back side of the coin.

Device - Pattern or emblem used in the design of a coin.

Edge - Rim of a coin often containing a series of reeds, lettering or other decoration.

Effigy - The image or likeness of a person/s.

Field - Background area of a coin not used for a design or inscription.

Inscription - Lettering and wording on a coin.

Legend - Principle inscription on a coin.

Milled Edge - Raised rim around the outer surface of a coin.

Relief - Part of the coin's design that is raised above the field.

Rim - Raised portion of the design along the edge, that protects the coin from wear.


Symbols as the prime form of human communication

The word symbol first entered the English language in about 1434. It derives from both the Greek word symbolon; a "token, or watchword", and from the Latin, symbolum meaning "creed, summary, religious belief, token, and mark". It was applied, for example,in c.250 by Cyprian of Carthage to the Apostles' Creed, in particular, the notion of the "mark" that distinguishes Christians from pagans.

The Greek and Latin derivation for the word symbolom is - syn - "together" + the stem of ballein "to throw." The word thus evolves from the notion of "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Ultimately it came to mean - an "outward sign" of something. The meaning "something which stands for something else" was first recorded in 1590 (in "Faerie Queene"). The word Symbolic is attested from 1680.

The nature of the symbol and the process of symbolization are deeply rooted in the human nervous system. The relationship of that system to consciousness, thought and subjectivity is complex, and not clearly understood by "experts"; such as cognitive psychologists, linguists, neuroscientists, etc., let alone "lay" persons.

Homo Sapiens have become sapient (wise, clever), because of his/her ability to allow symbols to "stand in the place" of something else. Homo Sapien became clever by being first of all Homo Symbolos.

Symbolic systems, once adopted, can generate very complex systems, and extraordinary levels of knowledge. Consider mathematical symbols such as π (pi) and + (plus) and - (minus) and 0 (zero), the latter derived from Arab intellectuals, which represent "mere" quantities - but which have generated that vast, dynamic body of knowledge called, Mathematics. The practical use of mathematical knowledge has had an extraordinary impact on human life on planet Earth.

Speaking about flags, but he could equally well be speaking about Coats of Arms, or colours, or Medals; the American vexillologist Dr Whitney Smith argued that these symbolic artefacts are a "manifestation of a wider and still older form of human activity, the making of symbols."

Symbolism, he says, distinguishes between those characteristics that are significant, and those that are not. Smith believes that the symbolism attaching to the artefacts mentioned above, can best be understood if we have an appreciation of some of the other forms of symbolism that are commonly used. Briefly, according to Smith, these are divided into 4 categories: active, verbal, concrete and graphic.

Active symbolism, as the name suggests, denotes action: extending the right hand in friendship (shaking hands), the raising of a clenched fist, saluting a flag or even burning a flag.

Verbal symbolism takes the form of written or spoken words, such as the text of a national anthem or reciting an oath of allegiance.

Concrete symbolism occurs when an existing object is imbued with a special symbolic meaning; for example, Mytrtidia on Kythera, a sacred tree, like the Portokalia (Orange Tree) of Karavas, or, in the Australian context, Uluru (formerly called Ayers Rock).

Finally, graphic symbolism can be used on artefacts of power, involving the drawn symbol, such as for example, the "Greek" cross, the crescent of Mohammed, or the symbol for Aphrodite/Venus, later adopted in the West as the symbol for all womanhood; and particular colours, (red for workers rights, Green for Mohammed, green and gold for Australia, and ...?... and ...?... for Kythera.)

Wikipedia concurs that "symbols can also be analysed by parsing them into the artifact and the metafact. An artifact is a humanly constructed object that can be perceived by the senses. It can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, touched, or felt. In contrast, a metafact is a human constructed object that can only be held in the mind. A favorite song, the concept of a nation or a cause, or the idea of economic value are each metafacts. When artifacts and metafacts combine, they form a symbol. A woven piece of cloth is just an artifact until it is invested with the metafact of a cause or a nation, then it becomes a flag, and that flag is a symbol. A stamped piece of metal is just an oddly shaped bit of metal until the stamped image stands for a measure of economic value, then it becomes a coin. The difference is in the metafact captured in the symbol".

Symbols then, can be "ciphers" or "denoters" or "markers" or "operators". And they can perform all of these functions simultaneously.

By performing these functions symbols are also tranducers of power. When a relgious person on Kythera, for example, venerates the Christian cross, he or she is not venerating two lines juxtaposed at right angles to each other.

He or she is reverencing the icon in order to transcend the limitations of his/her own sense of self, the limitations of average human ability and the average state of consciousness, the limitations of materiality, the limitations of time and space, ie. the limitations of self-enclosed and self-absorbed "personal" powerlessnes.

The word transcendence entered the English language in about 1340 AD. It derives from the Latin, transcendere - to "climb over or beyond, surmount," from trans- "beyond" + scandere "to climb".

Transcendentalism was first recorded 1803, in reference to the philosophy of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant; and was applied in 1842 to the religio-philosophical views of Ralph Waldo Emerson and similar New England (USA) thinkers.

To transcend, is

1. To pass beyond the limits of: emotions that transcend understanding.
2. To be greater than, as in intensity or power; surpass: love that transcends infatuation.
3. To exist above and independent of (material experience or the universe): “One never can see the thing in itself, because the mind does not transcend phenomena” (Hilaire Belloc).

Transcend also denotes

4. Surpassing others; preeminent or supreme.
5. Lying beyond the ordinary range of perception: “fails to achieve a transcendent significance in suffering and squalor” (National Review).
6.Philosophy.
a. Transcending the Aristotelian categories.
b. In Kant’s theory of knowledge, being beyond the limits of experience and hence unknowable.
7. Being above and independent of the material universe. Used of the Deity (God).

Transcendence is a meta-physical concept.

The human motivation to understand, believe in, and to reverence an icon leads to an infusion of (transcendant) power.

Great icons infuse great power. Human beings can transduce great power from great icons.

Symbols of Heraldic and Governmental Power

Albeit at a lower level of the psychological heirarchy, individuals can also transcend their self-absorption, isolation and enclosure, by a civic regard for their family; and at another level, their town or community; at a still higher level for their province; and at a still higher level again, for their nation-state.

At every level of that heirarchy appropriate symbols of power and authority can serve to empower the individual, and to validate his or her core values and identity.

Individuals alllow certain artefacts to "stand in the place" of a sense of collective empowerment. This process occurs at levels of the political heirarchy.

The central and iconic symbols of power and authority in Nation-States, "provinces", and local government authorities are the following:

Flag

Coat of Arms

Medals of Honour, both Civic and Military.

Anthem.

Colours.

Natural symbols of identity; gemstones, metals, flora, fauna, etc.

Countries, provinces, and municipalities that value their unique sense of identity, ensure that a Central Heraldic Authority is in place - to determine, maintain, and change, where appropriate - the central symbols of identity. Examples of Central Authorities which have fulfilled this function admirably are The College of Heralds, London - for the residents and citizens of England, and The Canadian Heraldic Authority - for the residents and citizens of Canada.

Australia should have inaugurated an Australian Heraldic Authority in 1897, in the lead up to Federation in 1901. This authority should have supervised the choice of Flag, in 1901, and would have ensured that official Australian Coats of Arms, Anthem, etc were in place by that date. As it was, Australia did not enter Federation with an official Coat of Arms. The hastily adopted Coat of Arms of 1908, was an inferior design. This abomination was dispensed with in 1912. It would be another 83 years before Australia adopted its own National Anthem and its own National colours.

Contrast the Australian and the American experience of civic iconography. The "flag of a foreign nation" was removed from the flag of the United States, even before the American War of Independence had ceased. The American Coat of Arms is unique and intrinsically American, as is the National Anthem. Americans would never countenance national iconography that was not derived from their history, their sende of "place", and their intrinsic sense of identity.

Some countries, such as Australia, and municipalities, such as Kythera, lack the self-belief and self-confidence to establish a Central Heraldic Authority, and further, to ensure that ALL symbols of identity, power and authority reflect their intrinsic sense of identity, and their intrinsic sense of "place".

The result is, in Australia's case, the perpetuation of "foreign" or external symbols of identity, well beyond the time, when such symbols infuse or evoke a sense of power, and therefore, serve to unify the citizenry around a central symbol.

The result in Kythera's case is the perpetuation of an "inferiority complex" - ...our little island is not worthy of taking ownership of, and of exercising such exalted symbols of power...."

It is now time that this attitude, and the practice of "living without symbols of power" - cease.

Kythera must, as soon as possible, adopt a Municipal and Island Flag, a Municipal and Island Coat of Arms, an anthem, Municipal Colours, etc etc.

It must be understood that the Heraldic significance and power for such symbols derives directly from the Head of State of the Hellenic Republic, as the representative of the Hellenic State.

It was thus very appropriate that the first Kytherian Medal of Honour was conferred on the President of the Hellenic Republic, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, on the 21st May, 2000

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 19.10.2006

The Medal of the Municipality of Kythera. Edge or side view.

The Medal is very substantial.

The width of the coin is about 5ml, or 3/16th inch.



[*It is my belief that this medal should be re-named the Kytherian Medal of Honour - Τιμητικό Μετάλλιο Κυθήρων]

[*It is my belief that this medal should be re-named the Kytherian Medal of Honour - Τιμητικό Μετάλλιο Κυθήρων]

Inception and Creation of the Medal of the Municipality of Kythera (1999)

Following a proposal by Municipal Councillor Professor George N Leontsinis, and upon the unanimous agreement of the newly established Municipal Council, it was decided to create the Medal.

The Medal marked a historic moment: the formation of the Municipality of Kythera.

The task of designing the Medal was assigned to sculptor, and Professor of Sculpture at the National Metsovio Polytechnic, George Kalakallas.

Taking into consideration the designs on coins, emblems, offical seals, and other historical records that were provided by the President of the Advisory Committee, Professor Athanasia Glycofrydi-Leontsini, the reknowned sculptor, Professor George Kalakallas, created a medal (gold, silver and bronze) that represents, on the obverse side, a contemporary female figure symbolising Aphrodite/Venus. Elements from ancient coins were used to design this particular Aphrodite/Venus.

On the reverse, is depicted the outline of the island of Kythera, together with a representation of the Chora Fortress, the Livadi Bridge, and the Mytrtidia Monastery.

The very first golden medal was conferred on the President of the Hellenic Republic, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, by the Mayor of Kythera, Artemis Kalligeros, during Konstantinos Stephanopoulos's official visit to Kythera on the 21st May, 2000, on the occasion of the celebration of the Unification of the Heptanese with mainland Greece (21st May 1864).

Adapted from the Booklet - Open University of the Municipality of Kythera. Academic Activities. 1999-2005


Numismatic Terminology

Numismatics (ancient Greek: νομισματική) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. While numismatists are often characterized as studying coins, the discipline also includes the study of banknotes, stock certificates, medals, medallions, and tokens (also referred to as Exonumia).

Exonumia

is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.

Now that we are discussing the Kytherian Medal of Honour, we have moved into the study of exonumia.

Obverse - Front or face side of coin.

Reverse - Back side of the coin.

Device - Pattern or emblem used in the design of a coin.

Edge - Rim of a coin often containing a series of reeds, lettering or other decoration.

Effigy - The image or likeness of a person/s.

Field - Background area of a coin not used for a design or inscription.

Inscription - Lettering and wording on a coin.

Legend - Principle inscription on a coin.

Milled Edge - Raised rim around the outer surface of a coin.

Relief - Part of the coin's design that is raised above the field.

Rim - Raised portion of the design along the edge, that protects the coin from wear.


Symbols as the prime form of human communication

The word symbol first entered the English language in about 1434. It derives from both the Greek word symbolon; a "token, or watchword", and from the Latin, symbolum meaning "creed, summary, religious belief, token, and mark". It was applied, for example,in c.250 by Cyprian of Carthage to the Apostles' Creed, in particular, the notion of the "mark" that distinguishes Christians from pagans.

The Greek and Latin derivation for the word symbolom is - syn - "together" + the stem of ballein "to throw." The word thus evolves from the notion of "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Ultimately it came to mean - an "outward sign" of something. The meaning "something which stands for something else" was first recorded in 1590 (in "Faerie Queene"). The word Symbolic is attested from 1680.

The nature of the symbol and the process of symbolization are deeply rooted in the human nervous system. The relationship of that system to consciousness, thought and subjectivity is complex, and not clearly understood by "experts"; such as cognitive psychologists, linguists, neuroscientists, etc., let alone "lay" persons.

Homo Sapiens have become sapient (wise, clever), because of his/her ability to allow symbols to "stand in the place" of something else. Homo Sapien became clever by being first of all Homo Symbolos.

Symbolic systems, once adopted, can generate very complex systems, and extraordinary levels of knowledge. Consider mathematical symbols such as π (pi) and + (plus) and - (minus) and 0 (zero), the latter derived from Arab intellectuals, which represent "mere" quantities - but which have generated that vast, dynamic body of knowledge called, Mathematics. The practical use of mathematical knowledge has had an extraordinary impact on human life on planet Earth.

Speaking about flags, but he could equally well be speaking about Coats of Arms, or colours, or Medals; the American vexillologist Dr Whitney Smith argued that these symbolic artefacts are a "manifestation of a wider and still older form of human activity, the making of symbols."

Symbolism, he says, distinguishes between those characteristics that are significant, and those that are not. Smith believes that the symbolism attaching to the artefacts mentioned above, can best be understood if we have an appreciation of some of the other forms of symbolism that are commonly used. Briefly, according to Smith, these are divided into 4 categories: active, verbal, concrete and graphic.

Active symbolism, as the name suggests, denotes action: extending the right hand in friendship (shaking hands), the raising of a clenched fist, saluting a flag or even burning a flag.

Verbal symbolism takes the form of written or spoken words, such as the text of a national anthem or reciting an oath of allegiance.

Concrete symbolism occurs when an existing object is imbued with a special symbolic meaning; for example, Mytrtidia on Kythera, a sacred tree, like the Portokalia (Orange Tree) of Karavas, or, in the Australian context, Uluru (formerly called Ayers Rock).

Finally, graphic symbolism can be used on artefacts of power, involving the drawn symbol, such as for example, the "Greek" cross, the crescent of Mohammed, or the symbol for Aphrodite/Venus, later adopted in the West as the symbol for all womanhood; and particular colours, (red for workers rights, Green for Mohammed, green and gold for Australia, and ...?... and ...?... for Kythera.)

Wikipedia concurs that "symbols can also be analysed by parsing them into the artifact and the metafact. An artifact is a humanly constructed object that can be perceived by the senses. It can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, touched, or felt. In contrast, a metafact is a human constructed object that can only be held in the mind. A favorite song, the concept of a nation or a cause, or the idea of economic value are each metafacts. When artifacts and metafacts combine, they form a symbol. A woven piece of cloth is just an artifact until it is invested with the metafact of a cause or a nation, then it becomes a flag, and that flag is a symbol. A stamped piece of metal is just an oddly shaped bit of metal until the stamped image stands for a measure of economic value, then it becomes a coin. The difference is in the metafact captured in the symbol".

Symbols then, can be "ciphers" or "denoters" or "markers" or "operators". And they can perform all of these functions simultaneously.

By performing these functions symbols are also tranducers of power. When a relgious person on Kythera, for example, venerates the Christian cross, he or she is not venerating two lines juxtaposed at right angles to each other.

He or she is reverencing the icon in order to transcend the limitations of his/her own sense of self, the limitations of average human ability and the average state of consciousness, the limitations of materiality, the limitations of time and space, ie. the limitations of self-enclosed and self-absorbed "personal" powerlessnes.

The word transcendence entered the English language in about 1340 AD. It derives from the Latin, transcendere - to "climb over or beyond, surmount," from trans- "beyond" + scandere "to climb".

Transcendentalism was first recorded 1803, in reference to the philosophy of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant; and was applied in 1842 to the religio-philosophical views of Ralph Waldo Emerson and similar New England (USA) thinkers.

To transcend, is

1. To pass beyond the limits of: emotions that transcend understanding.
2. To be greater than, as in intensity or power; surpass: love that transcends infatuation.
3. To exist above and independent of (material experience or the universe): “One never can see the thing in itself, because the mind does not transcend phenomena” (Hilaire Belloc).

Transcend also denotes

4. Surpassing others; preeminent or supreme.
5. Lying beyond the ordinary range of perception: “fails to achieve a transcendent significance in suffering and squalor” (National Review).
6.Philosophy.
a. Transcending the Aristotelian categories.
b. In Kant’s theory of knowledge, being beyond the limits of experience and hence unknowable.
7. Being above and independent of the material universe. Used of the Deity (God).

Transcendence is a meta-physical concept.

The human motivation to understand, believe in, and to reverence an icon leads to an infusion of (transcendant) power.

Great icons infuse great power. Human beings can transduce great power from great icons.

Symbols of Heraldic and Governmental Power

Albeit at a lower level of the psychological heirarchy, individuals can also transcend their self-absorption, isolation and enclosure, by a civic regard for their family; and at another level, their town or community; at a still higher level for their province; and at a still higher level again, for their nation-state.

At every level of that heirarchy appropriate symbols of power and authority can serve to empower the individual, and to validate his or her core values and identity.

Individuals alllow certain artefacts to "stand in the place" of a sense of collective empowerment. This process occurs at levels of the political heirarchy.

The central and iconic symbols of power and authority in Nation-States, "provinces", and local government authorities are the following:

Flag

Coat of Arms

Medals of Honour, both Civic and Military.

Anthem.

Colours.

Natural symbols of identity; gemstones, metals, flora, fauna, etc.

Countries, provinces, and municipalities that value their unique sense of identity, ensure that a Central Heraldic Authority is in place - to determine, maintain, and change, where appropriate - the central symbols of identity. Examples of Central Authorities which have fulfilled this function admirably are The College of Heralds, London - for the residents and citizens of England, and The Canadian Heraldic Authority - for the residents and citizens of Canada.

Australia should have inaugurated an Australian Heraldic Authority in 1897, in the lead up to Federation in 1901. This authority should have supervised the choice of Flag, in 1901, and would have ensured that official Australian Coats of Arms, Anthem, etc were in place by that date. As it was, Australia did not enter Federation with an official Coat of Arms. The hastily adopted Coat of Arms of 1908, was an inferior design. This abomination was dispensed with in 1912. It would be another 83 years before Australia adopted its own National Anthem and its own National colours.

Contrast the Australian and the American experience of civic iconography. The "flag of a foreign nation" was removed from the flag of the United States, even before the American War of Independence had ceased. The American Coat of Arms is unique and intrinsically American, as is the National Anthem. Americans would never countenance national iconography that was not derived from their history, their sende of "place", and their intrinsic sense of identity.

Some countries, such as Australia, and municipalities, such as Kythera, lack the self-belief and self-confidence to establish a Central Heraldic Authority, and further, to ensure that ALL symbols of identity, power and authority reflect their intrinsic sense of identity, and their intrinsic sense of "place".

The result is, in Australia's case, the perpetuation of "foreign" or external symbols of identity, well beyond the time, when such symbols infuse or evoke a sense of power, and therefore, serve to unify the citizenry around a central symbol.

The result in Kythera's case is the perpetuation of an "inferiority complex" - ...our little island is not worthy of taking ownership of, and of exercising such exalted symbols of power...."

It is now time that this attitude, and the practice of "living without symbols of power" - cease.

Kythera must, as soon as possible, adopt a Municipal and Island Flag, a Municipal and Island Coat of Arms, an anthem, Municipal Colours, etc etc.

It must be understood that the Heraldic significance and power for such symbols derives directly from the Head of State of the Hellenic Republic, as the representative of the Hellenic State.

It was thus very appropriate that the first Kytherian Medal of Honour was conferred on the President of the Hellenic Republic, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, on the 21st May, 2000

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 19.10.2006

The Medal of the Municipality of Kythera. Reverse**.

[*It is my belief that this medal should be re-named the Kytherian Medal of Honour - Τιμητικό Μετάλλιο Κυθήρων]

Inception and Creation of the Medal of the Municipality of Kythera (1999)

Following a proposal by Municipal Councillor Professor George N Leontsinis, and upon the unanimous agreement of the newly established Municipal Council, it was decided to create the Medal.

The Medal marked a historic moment: the formation of the Municipality of Kythera.

The task of designing the Medal was assigned to sculptor, and Professor of Sculpture at the National Metsovio Polytechnic, George Kalakallas.

Taking into consideration the designs on coins, emblems, offical seals, and other historical records that were provided by the President of the Advisory Committee, Professor Athanasia Glycofrydi-Leontsini, the reknowned sculptor, Professor George Kalakallas, created a medal (gold, silver and bronze) that represents, on the obverse side, a contemporary female figure symbolising Aphrodite/Venus. Elements from ancient coins were used to design this particular Aphrodite/Venus.

On the reverse, is depicted the outline of the island of Kythera, together with a representation of the Chora Fortress, the Livadi Bridge, and the Mytrtidia Monastery.

The very first golden medal was conferred on the President of the Hellenic Republic, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, by the Mayor of Kythera, Artemis Kalligeros, during Konstantinos Stephanopoulos's official visit to Kythera on the 21st May, 2000, on the occasion of the celebration of the Unification of the Heptanese with mainland Greece (21st May 1864).

Adapted from the Booklet - Open University of the Municipality of Kythera. Academic Activities. 1999-2005


Numismatic Terminology

Numismatics (ancient Greek: νομισματική) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. While numismatists are often characterized as studying coins, the discipline also includes the study of banknotes, stock certificates, medals, medallions, and tokens (also referred to as Exonumia).

Exonumia

is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.

Now that we are discussing the Kytherian Medal of Honour, we have moved into the study of exonumia.

**Obverse - Front or face side of coin.

**Reverse - Back side of the coin.

Device - Pattern or emblem used in the design of a coin.

Edge - Rim of a coin often containing a series of reeds, lettering or other decoration.

Effigy - The image or likeness of a person/s.

Field - Background area of a coin not used for a design or inscription.

Inscription - Lettering and wording on a coin.

Legend - Principle inscription on a coin.

Milled Edge - Raised rim around the outer surface of a coin.

Relief - Part of the coin's design that is raised above the field.

Rim - Raised portion of the design along the edge, that protects the coin from wear.


Symbols as the prime form of human communication

The word symbol first entered the English language in about 1434. It derives from both the Greek word symbolon; a "token, or watchword", and from the Latin, symbolum meaning "creed, summary, religious belief, token, and mark". It was applied, for example,in c.250 by Cyprian of Carthage to the Apostles' Creed, in particular, the notion of the "mark" that distinguishes Christians from pagans.

The Greek and Latin derivation for the word symbolom is - syn - "together" + the stem of ballein "to throw." The word thus evolves from the notion of "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Ultimately it came to mean - an "outward sign" of something. The meaning "something which stands for something else" was first recorded in 1590 (in "Faerie Queene"). The word Symbolic is attested from 1680.

The nature of the symbol and the process of symbolization are deeply rooted in the human nervous system. The relationship of that system to consciousness, thought and subjectivity is complex, and not clearly understood by "experts"; such as cognitive psychologists, linguists, neuroscientists, etc., let alone "lay" persons.

Homo Sapiens have become sapient (wise, clever), because of his/her ability to allow symbols to "stand in the place" of something else. Homo Sapien became clever by being first of all Homo Symbolos.

Symbolic systems, once adopted, can generate very complex systems, and extraordinary levels of knowledge. Consider mathematical symbols such as π (pi) and + (plus) and - (minus) and 0 (zero), the latter derived from Arab intellectuals, which represent "mere" quantities - but which have generated that vast, dynamic body of knowledge called, Mathematics. The practical use of mathematical knowledge has had an extraordinary impact on human life on planet Earth.

Speaking about flags, but he could equally well be speaking about Coats of Arms, or colours, or Medals; the American vexillologist Dr Whitney Smith argued that these symbolic artefacts are a "manifestation of a wider and still older form of human activity, the making of symbols."

Symbolism, he says, distinguishes between those characteristics that are significant, and those that are not. Smith believes that the symbolism attaching to the artefacts mentioned above, can best be understood if we have an appreciation of some of the other forms of symbolism that are commonly used. Briefly, according to Smith, these are divided into 4 categories: active, verbal, concrete and graphic.

Active symbolism, as the name suggests, denotes action: extending the right hand in friendship (shaking hands), the raising of a clenched fist, saluting a flag or even burning a flag.

Verbal symbolism takes the form of written or spoken words, such as the text of a national anthem or reciting an oath of allegiance.

Concrete symbolism occurs when an existing object is imbued with a special symbolic meaning; for example, Mytrtidia on Kythera, a sacred tree, like the Portokalia (Orange Tree) of Karavas, or, in the Australian context, Uluru (formerly called Ayers Rock).

Finally, graphic symbolism can be used on artefacts of power, involving the drawn symbol, such as for example, the "Greek" cross, the crescent of Mohammed, or the symbol for Aphrodite/Venus, later adopted in the West as the symbol for all womanhood; and particular colours, (red for workers rights, Green for Mohammed, green and gold for Australia, and ...?... and ...?... for Kythera.)

Wikipedia concurs that "symbols can also be analysed by parsing them into the artifact and the metafact. An artifact is a humanly constructed object that can be perceived by the senses. It can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, touched, or felt. In contrast, a metafact is a human constructed object that can only be held in the mind. A favorite song, the concept of a nation or a cause, or the idea of economic value are each metafacts. When artifacts and metafacts combine, they form a symbol. A woven piece of cloth is just an artifact until it is invested with the metafact of a cause or a nation, then it becomes a flag, and that flag is a symbol. A stamped piece of metal is just an oddly shaped bit of metal until the stamped image stands for a measure of economic value, then it becomes a coin. The difference is in the metafact captured in the symbol".

Symbols then, can be "ciphers" or "denoters" or "markers" or "operators". And they can perform all of these functions simultaneously.

By performing these functions symbols are also tranducers of power. When a relgious person on Kythera, for example, venerates the Christian cross, he or she is not venerating two lines juxtaposed at right angles to each other.

He or she is reverencing the icon in order to transcend the limitations of his/her own sense of self, the limitations of average human ability and the average state of consciousness, the limitations of materiality, the limitations of time and space, ie. the limitations of self-enclosed and self-absorbed "personal" powerlessnes.

The word transcendence entered the English language in about 1340 AD. It derives from the Latin, transcendere - to "climb over or beyond, surmount," from trans- "beyond" + scandere "to climb".

Transcendentalism was first recorded 1803, in reference to the philosophy of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant; and was applied in 1842 to the religio-philosophical views of Ralph Waldo Emerson and similar New England (USA) thinkers.

To transcend, is

1. To pass beyond the limits of: emotions that transcend understanding.
2. To be greater than, as in intensity or power; surpass: love that transcends infatuation.
3. To exist above and independent of (material experience or the universe): “One never can see the thing in itself, because the mind does not transcend phenomena” (Hilaire Belloc).

Transcend also denotes

4. Surpassing others; preeminent or supreme.
5. Lying beyond the ordinary range of perception: “fails to achieve a transcendent significance in suffering and squalor” (National Review).
6.Philosophy.
a. Transcending the Aristotelian categories.
b. In Kant’s theory of knowledge, being beyond the limits of experience and hence unknowable.
7. Being above and independent of the material universe. Used of the Deity (God).

Transcendence is a meta-physical concept.

The human motivation to understand, believe in, and to reverence an icon leads to an infusion of (transcendant) power.

Great icons infuse great power. Human beings can transduce great power from great icons.

Symbols of Heraldic and Governmental Power

Albeit at a lower level of the psychological heirarchy, individuals can also transcend their self-absorption, isolation and enclosure, by a civic regard for their family; and at another level, their town or community; at a still higher level for their province; and at a still higher level again, for their nation-state.

At every level of that heirarchy appropriate symbols of power and authority can serve to empower the individual, and to validate his or her core values and sense of identity.

Individuals alllow certain artefacts to "stand in the place" of a sense of collective empowerment. This process occurs at all levels of the political heirarchy.

The central and iconic symbols of power and authority in Nation-States, "provinces", and local government authorities are the following:

Flag

Coat of Arms

Medals of Honour, both Civic and Military.

Anthem.

Colours.

Natural symbols of identity; gemstones, metals, flora, fauna, etc.

Countries, provinces, and municipalities that value their unique sense of identity, ensure that a Central Heraldic Authority is in place - to determine, maintain, and change, where appropriate - the central symbols of identity. Examples of Central Authorities which have fulfilled this function admirably are The College of Heralds, London - for the residents and citizens of England, and The Canadian Heraldic Authority - for the residents and citizens of Canada.

Australia should have inaugurated an Australian Heraldic Authority in 1897, in the lead up to Federation in 1901. This authority should have supervised the choice of Flag, in 1901, and would have ensured that official Australian Coats of Arms, Anthem, etc were in place by that date. As it was, Australia did not enter Federation with an official Coat of Arms. The hastily adopted Coat of Arms of 1908, was an inferior design. This abomination was dispensed with in 1912. It would be another 83 years before Australia adopted its own National Anthem and its own National colours.

Contrast the Australian and the American experience of civic iconography. The "flag of a foreign nation" was removed from the flag of the United States, even before the American War of Independence had ceased. The American Coat of Arms is unique and intrinsically American, as is the National Anthem. Americans would never countenance national iconography that was not derived from their history, their sense of "place", and their intrinsic sense of identity.

Some countries, such as Australia, and municipalities, such as Kythera, lack the self-belief and self-confidence to establish a Central Heraldic Authority, and further, to ensure that ALL symbols of identity, power and authority reflect their intrinsic sense of identity, and their intrinsic sense of "place".

The result is, in Australia's case, the perpetuation of "foreign" or external symbols of identity, well beyond the time, when such symbols infuse or evoke a sense of power, and therefore, serve to unify the citizenry around a central symbol.

The result in Kythera's case is the perpetuation of an "inferiority complex" - ...our little island is not worthy of taking ownership of, and of exercising such exalted symbols of power...."

It is now time that this attitude, and the practice of "living without symbols of power" - cease.

Kythera must, as soon as possible, adopt a Municipal and Island Flag, a Municipal and Island Coat of Arms, an anthem, Municipal Colours, etc etc.

It must be understood that the Heraldic significance and power for such symbols derives directly from the Head of State of the Hellenic Republic, as the representative of the Hellenic State.

It was thus very appropriate that the first Kytherian Medal of Honour was conferred on the President of the Hellenic Republic, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, on the 21st May, 2000

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 03.12.2006

The Medal of the Municipality of Kythera. Obverse**.

[*It is my belief that this medal should be re-named the Kytherian Medal of Honour - Τιμητικό Μετάλλιο Κυθήρων]

[*It is my belief that this medal should be re-named the Kytherian Medal of Honour - Τιμητικό Μετάλλιο Κυθήρων]

Inception and Creation of the Medal of the Municipality of Kythera (1999)

Following a proposal by Municipal Councillor Professor George N Leontsinis, and upon the unanimous agreement of the newly established Municipal Council, it was decided to create the Medal.

The Medal marked a historic moment: the formation of the Municipality of Kythera.

The task of designing the Medal was assigned to sculptor, and Professor of Sculpture at the National Metsovio Polytechnic, George Kalakallas.

Taking into consideration the designs on coins, emblems, offical seals, and other historical records that were provided by the President of the Advisory Committee, Professor Athanasia Glycofrydi-Leontsini, the reknowned sculptor, Professor George Kalakallas, created a medal (gold, silver and bronze) that represents, on the obverse side, a contemporary female figure symbolising Aphrodite/Venus. Elements from ancient coins were used to design this particular Aphrodite/Venus.

On the reverse, is depicted the outline of the island of Kythera, together with a representation of the Chora Fortress, the Livadi Bridge, and the Mytrtidia Monastery.

The very first golden medal was conferred on the President of the Hellenic Republic, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, by the Mayor of Kythera, Artemis Kalligeros, during Konstantinos Stephanopoulos's official visit to Kythera on the 21st May, 2000, on the occasion of the celebration of the Unification of the Heptanese with mainland Greece (21st May 1864).

Adapted from the Booklet - Open University of the Municipality of Kythera. Academic Activities. 1999-2005


Numismatic Terminology

Numismatics (ancient Greek: νομισματική) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. While numismatists are often characterized as studying coins, the discipline also includes the study of banknotes, stock certificates, medals, medallions, and tokens (also referred to as Exonumia).

Exonumia

is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.

Now that we are discussing the Kytherian Medal of Honour, we have moved into the study of exonumia.

**Obverse - Front or face side of coin.

Reverse - Back side of the coin.

Device - Pattern or emblem used in the design of a coin.

Edge - Rim of a coin often containing a series of reeds, lettering or other decoration.

Effigy - The image or likeness of a person/s.

Field - Background area of a coin not used for a design or inscription.

Inscription - Lettering and wording on a coin.

Legend - Principle inscription on a coin.

Milled Edge - Raised rim around the outer surface of a coin.

Relief - Part of the coin's design that is raised above the field.

Rim - Raised portion of the design along the edge, that protects the coin from wear.


Symbols as the prime form of human communication

The word symbol first entered the English language in about 1434. It derives from both the Greek word symbolon; a "token, or watchword", and from the Latin, symbolum meaning "creed, summary, religious belief, token, and mark". It was applied, for example,in c.250 by Cyprian of Carthage to the Apostles' Creed, in particular, the notion of the "mark" that distinguishes Christians from pagans.

The Greek and Latin derivation for the word symbolom is - syn - "together" + the stem of ballein "to throw." The word thus evolves from the notion of "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Ultimately it came to mean - an "outward sign" of something. The meaning "something which stands for something else" was first recorded in 1590 (in "Faerie Queene"). The word Symbolic is attested from 1680.

The nature of the symbol and the process of symbolization are deeply rooted in the human nervous system. The relationship of that system to consciousness, thought and subjectivity is complex, and not clearly understood by "experts"; such as cognitive psychologists, linguists, neuroscientists, etc., let alone "lay" persons.

Homo Sapiens have become sapient (wise, clever), because of his/her ability to allow symbols to "stand in the place" of something else. Homo Sapien became clever by being first of all Homo Symbolos.

Symbolic systems, once adopted, can generate very complex systems, and extraordinary levels of knowledge. Consider mathematical symbols such as π (pi) and + (plus) and - (minus) and 0 (zero), the latter derived from Arab intellectuals, which represent "mere" quantities - but which have generated that vast, dynamic body of knowledge called, Mathematics. The practical use of mathematical knowledge has had an extraordinary impact on human life on planet Earth.

Speaking about flags, but he could equally well be speaking about Coats of Arms, or colours, or Medals; the American vexillologist Dr Whitney Smith argued that these symbolic artefacts are a "manifestation of a wider and still older form of human activity, the making of symbols."

Symbolism, he says, distinguishes between those characteristics that are significant, and those that are not. Smith believes that the symbolism attaching to the artefacts mentioned above, can best be understood if we have an appreciation of some of the other forms of symbolism that are commonly used. Briefly, according to Smith, these are divided into 4 categories: active, verbal, concrete and graphic.

Active symbolism, as the name suggests, denotes action: extending the right hand in friendship (shaking hands), the raising of a clenched fist, saluting a flag or even burning a flag.

Verbal symbolism takes the form of written or spoken words, such as the text of a national anthem or reciting an oath of allegiance.

Concrete symbolism occurs when an existing object is imbued with a special symbolic meaning; for example, Mytrtidia on Kythera, a sacred tree, like the Portokalia (Orange Tree) of Karavas, or, in the Australian context, Uluru (formerly called Ayers Rock).

Finally, graphic symbolism can be used on artefacts of power, involving the drawn symbol, such as for example, the "Greek" cross, the crescent of Mohammed, or the symbol for Aphrodite/Venus, later adopted in the West as the symbol for all womanhood; and particular colours, (red for workers rights, Green for Mohammed, green and gold for Australia, and ...?... and ...?... for Kythera.)

Wikipedia concurs that "symbols can also be analysed by parsing them into the artifact and the metafact. An artifact is a humanly constructed object that can be perceived by the senses. It can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, touched, or felt. In contrast, a metafact is a human constructed object that can only be held in the mind. A favorite song, the concept of a nation or a cause, or the idea of economic value are each metafacts. When artifacts and metafacts combine, they form a symbol. A woven piece of cloth is just an artifact until it is invested with the metafact of a cause or a nation, then it becomes a flag, and that flag is a symbol. A stamped piece of metal is just an oddly shaped bit of metal until the stamped image stands for a measure of economic value, then it becomes a coin. The difference is in the metafact captured in the symbol".

Symbols then, can be "ciphers" or "denoters" or "markers" or "operators". And they can perform all of these functions simultaneously.

By performing these functions symbols are also tranducers of power. When a relgious person on Kythera, for example, venerates the Christian cross, he or she is not venerating two lines juxtaposed at right angles to each other.

He or she is reverencing the icon in order to transcend the limitations of his/her own sense of self, the limitations of average human ability and the average state of consciousness, the limitations of materiality, the limitations of time and space, ie. the limitations of self-enclosed and self-absorbed "personal" powerlessnes.

The word transcendence entered the English language in about 1340 AD. It derives from the Latin, transcendere - to "climb over or beyond, surmount," from trans- "beyond" + scandere "to climb".

Transcendentalism was first recorded 1803, in reference to the philosophy of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant; and was applied in 1842 to the religio-philosophical views of Ralph Waldo Emerson and similar New England (USA) thinkers.

To transcend, is

1. To pass beyond the limits of: emotions that transcend understanding.
2. To be greater than, as in intensity or power; surpass: love that transcends infatuation.
3. To exist above and independent of (material experience or the universe): “One never can see the thing in itself, because the mind does not transcend phenomena” (Hilaire Belloc).

Transcend also denotes

4. Surpassing others; preeminent or supreme.
5. Lying beyond the ordinary range of perception: “fails to achieve a transcendent significance in suffering and squalor” (National Review).
6.Philosophy.
a. Transcending the Aristotelian categories.
b. In Kant’s theory of knowledge, being beyond the limits of experience and hence unknowable.
7. Being above and independent of the material universe. Used of the Deity (God).

Transcendence is a meta-physical concept.

The human motivation to understand, believe in, and to reverence an icon leads to an infusion of (transcendant) power.

Great icons infuse great power. Human beings can transduce great power from great icons.

Symbols of Heraldic and Governmental Power

Albeit at a lower level of the psychological heirarchy, individuals can also transcend their self-absorption, isolation and enclosure, by a civic regard for their family; and at another level, their town or community; at a still higher level for their province; and at a still higher level again, for their nation-state.

At every level of that heirarchy appropriate symbols of power and authority can serve to empower the individual, and to validate his or her core values and identity.

Individuals alllow certain artefacts to "stand in the place" of a sense of collective empowerment. This process occurs at levels of the political heirarchy.

The central and iconic symbols of power and authority in Nation-States, "provinces", and local government authorities are the following:

Flag

Coat of Arms

Medals of Honour, both Civic and Military.

Anthem.

Colours.

Natural symbols of identity; gemstones, metals, flora, fauna, etc.

Countries, provinces, and municipalities that value their unique sense of identity, ensure that a Central Heraldic Authority is in place - to determine, maintain, and change, where appropriate - the central symbols of identity. Examples of Central Authorities which have fulfilled this function admirably are The College of Heralds, London - for the residents and citizens of England, and The Canadian Heraldic Authority - for the residents and citizens of Canada.

Australia should have inaugurated an Australian Heraldic Authority in 1897, in the lead up to Federation in 1901. This authority should have supervised the choice of Flag, in 1901, and would have ensured that official Australian Coats of Arms, Anthem, etc were in place by that date. As it was, Australia did not enter Federation with an official Coat of Arms. The hastily adopted Coat of Arms of 1908, was an inferior design. This abomination was dispensed with in 1912. It would be another 83 years before Australia adopted its own National Anthem and its own National colours.

Contrast the Australian and the American experience of civic iconography. The "flag of a foreign nation" was removed from the flag of the United States, even before the American War of Independence had ceased. The American Coat of Arms is unique and intrinsically American, as is the National Anthem. Americans would never countenance national iconography that was not derived from their history, their sense of "place", and their intrinsic sense of identity.

Some countries, such as Australia, and municipalities, such as Kythera, lack the self-belief and self-confidence to establish a Central Heraldic Authority, and further, to ensure that ALL symbols of identity, power and authority reflect their intrinsic sense of identity, and their intrinsic sense of "place".

The result is, in Australia's case, the perpetuation of "foreign" or external symbols of identity, well beyond the time, when such symbols infuse or evoke a sense of power, and therefore, serve to unify the citizenry around a central symbol.

The result in Kythera's case is the perpetuation of an "inferiority complex" - ...our little island is not worthy of taking ownership of, and of exercising such exalted symbols of power...."

It is now time that this attitude, and the practice of "living without symbols of power" - cease.

Kythera must, as soon as possible, adopt a Municipal and Island Flag, a Municipal and Island Coat of Arms, an anthem, Municipal Colours, etc etc.

It must be understood that the Heraldic significance and power for such symbols derives directly from the Head of State of the Hellenic Republic, as the representative of the Hellenic State.

It was thus very appropriate that the first Kytherian Medal of Honour was conferred on the President of the Hellenic Republic, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, on the 21st May, 2000

History > Documents

submitted by Institute Of Kytheraismos on 09.10.2006

Kytheraismos Conference. Dinner Ticket.

Saturday 16th September, 2006.

History > Documents

submitted by Robyn Florance on 01.08.2006

Aroney Brothers, Nowra. Advertisment. 1931.

See,

History of The Aroney Family in Nowra

History > Documents

submitted by Robyn Florance on 01.08.2006

Aroney Brothers, Nowra. Advertisment, 1926.

See,

History of The Aroney Family in Nowra

History > Documents

submitted by Robyn Florance on 01.08.2006

Aroney Brothers, Nowra. Advertisment. 1925.

See,

History of The Aroney Family in Nowra

History > Documents

submitted by Kytherian Cinema Review on 01.08.2006

Call Sheet. Mad Max 1.

This is the original call sheet from the first day of filming in October 1977.

Call sheets provide a listing of which actors will be required for which scenes, when they will be required on set, as well as other information including the filming locations.

http://www.madmaxonline.com/museum/a_call_sheet_image1.htm

History > Documents

submitted by Kytherian Cinema Review on 01.08.2006

Mad Max 2. Chapter 1. Novelisation of the Film.

Feral Child (Emile Minty) and Max (Mel Gibson), in George Miller's Mad Max 2, (1981).

MAD MAX 2


Written by Terry Hayes George Miller
and Brian Hannant
Novelisation by Carl Ruhen


A Q.B BOOK
A Q.B Book

Distributed by Progress Publications
506 Miller Street, Cammeray 2062, and Gordon & Gotch Limited
114 William Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia

Copyright: Film Script © 1981 by Warner Bros. Inc.

Reprinted 1982

National Library of Australia Card No. and ISBN 0 7255 1183 4

Novelisation: All rights reserved.

Printed in Australia by New Century Press Pty Limited
5 Cumberland Street, Sydney 2000

CHAPTER ONE

Max roves, Max ranges. It is all he can do now, this gaunt, hollow-eyed man, he and the machine and the dog, which is all he has left in the world that is crumbling all around him, burning up the highways, through the dust and the stinging flurries of sand that is whipped by the hot wind against the wind­screen of his black-on-black pursuit car, which bears the scars of the many times he has had to beat back the bands of marauders attracted by the fuel he is carrying in his tanks.
The machine and the dog — and his memories. The sun’s fierce heat pounds relentlessly down on the baking earth. Beneath the shimmering heat, the clusters of rocks seem as if they are in constant motion. Mirages seem to float upwards out of the beating heat. Images form, a face, faces, people and planes, parachutes dropping from the sky which then becomes a ‘deep, thundering black, black and purple, and shot through with searing flames.
The wasteland is tinged with red. It is strangely beautiful. Like the end of the earth, the sun large in the sky, and all life having shrivelled away to nothing. Max drives fast, but the thoughts keep crowding in, glimpses, flashes, there’s no way to escape them, no matter how much you put on the speed — like there’s no way to escape the marauders, the vultures, bloodsuckers, and all along the highways, into the fields where they have been chased, littering creek beds, there they are, the smashed, rusting, burnt out hulks of the vehicles that have fallen prey to them.
The heat plays tricks on the eyes, which are heavy and gritty through lack of sleep and the effort of concentration, the necessity not to let the guard drop for a single moment. But one thrives on this energy, borrowed and stored away in the system —one just goes, and goes, and goes.
A woman’s face, sleepy, smiling, flushed with the lovemaking that has just ended, a voice murmuring in his ear, a baby crying.. . Jesus, no! Foot down on the pedal, the engine roaring, and the countryside spinning past, a monotonous sameness about it, hills and gulches, all red, so barren. Yes, one just keeps on going, one couldn’t stay still, no place to settle, the search was going on all the time. No end to it. It’s funny when you think about it, the way — the manner — in which the world is ending. Cataclysmic, the way everyone expected it would, somehow —but still funny. It had to happen, and it is happening, the population has scattered everywhere, and the cities — see the cities now — are crumbling and slowly falling apart. The decay has set in, and there is nothing that can be done to stop it, even if the will were there. The cities are nothing more than shells now — towering monuments to futility. Perhaps it is funny, this thing that is happening now, while Max forages, because people had actually believed in the permanence of things, that it go on and on the way it was, and they could put up buildings — glitter­ing spires — that reached higher and higher, that they could reach for and conquer the universe. Perhaps it was the smugness of those days that made it funny. Maybe there was bitter humor to be found in panic, in looting, death and wholesale destruction.
Even when all the signs were there, and the satellites beamed the flickering images into every household — those images of confrontation and conflagration, the screaming hordes that swept all before them, the blazing buildings, the execution squads, the assassinations, and all other forms of violence that had taken on a comfortable domestic aspect — there was still no reason to believe that a stand-off wouldn’t be reached just this side of the brink, a brief defusing hiatus, a withdrawal within a continued state of hostility, a problem never, never to be solved, because there just was no solution. It was like the surf, rolling in, drawing back, the one motion complementing the other, a law of nature. It was inconceivable that the tide wouldn’t ebb, that the moon wouldn’t continue to wield its timeless influence. But no, not this time...
It was the fuel that mattered. Banknotes fluttered in the streets of those silent cities. They were caught in drifts, piled up in gutters, against walls and in doorways. The wind caught them and sent them in flurries across the open ground, across squares and plazas, and the parks which had become veritable jungles by now. And gold — stockpiled, forgotten, useless. Only the fuel. The institutions had gone —the banks, stock exchanges, those great corpora­tions that had spread their tentacles across the globe, those great palaces of glass and marble, deserted now, dank and crumbling mausoleums.
‘Max, there’s something bothering you. You’ve hardly said a word all night.”
A distant voice, a smile, flickering candlelight. What was it? A celebration?
“Just tired, I guess, honey. Nothing wrong. I’m all right.”
The way the light caught Jessie’s hair, a gentle rippling of soft light every time she moved her head. Pure gold. A smile hovering, a stirring of desire.
“I don’t believe you, Max. You can’t fool me. You never have been able to fool me. I can see you’re worried.”
Her eyes shining. Everything about Jessie shone. “Why should I be worried?” How unconvincing it sounded, a hollow voice. “I’ve got you and Sprog —the three of us — that’s all I care about. As long as I have you. And the kid.”
Jessie frowning, her voice low and serious as she abstractedly stirs her coffee, the spoon going round and round, making small chinking sounds against the side of the cup. ‘There’s been talk.”
“What sort of talk?”
“Disturbing talk. About you. About your life expec­tancy. You know, there’s a book being run. It’s odds on that you won’t last a week.”
But he had, and the week after that, and the weeks, and months and years, so many years after that — he was the one who had lasted. He was the only one left, and frankly, there were times when he wished he wasn’t.
The contented roar of the powerful engine, hands loose on the steering wheel, and a cloud of dust rising behind him as he sped through the weird, arid country, with its isolated outcrops of rock, the dried riverbeds, the clumps of saltbush and spinifex.
Proclamations, declarations, the lines of cars that stretched and stretched, the queues that grew longer each day to soak up what remained of the fast-evaporating fuel supplies, the cost of which rocketed and rocketed until it seemed that no amount of money was enough to purchase a single gallon of that very limited stock that had not already been commandeered for the essential services, which were fast breaking down in any case. The out­breaks of fighting in the streets had become steadily less sporadic. The mobs had surged this way and that, a devouring monster that destroyed everything in its path turned loose. Factories had ground to a standstill, useless now, the starved machinery choking in rust.
And back further, to the time of the Nightrider, the Toecutter — names now, nothing more — the screech of tires, and the Toecutter’s bike hurling itself between the front wheels of the huge road rig that had come lumbering up over a rise in the road, and the Toecutter still conscious under the grille until the second the sump guard ripped his head and shoulders off at the chest. The Toecutter had paid for what he had done — done to Jessie and Sprog — he and the others, but even so, Max had felt he had been cheated in some way. The Toecutter hadn’t deserved to die as quickly as he had, no way, and even that split-second of awareness that remained to him after his bike slewed in beneath those gigantic wheels wasn’t enough. Not nearly enough.
The past rolled into the present, and the present rolled into the future. Sometimes it was difficult to disentangle them. Movement. Ceaseless move­ment, on and on. . . and shit, there wasn’t a future. Why think about a future? All the lights had long been turned off.
Max is not alone on this stretch of road. At what precise point he realised he was not alone on this stretch of road, he can’t be sure. His instincts, being what they are, so highly tuned, must have registered the movement, a new element in the composition of the red landscape, maybe even before his eyes had picked it up. Something different, an alarm bell triggered. But now he can see them, clearly now, burning up the road behind him, steadily gaining on him, specks at first, tiny black specks materialising through the shimmering heat behind him, growing larger, looming, gradually taking on form and sub­stance. Three of them. They have picked up his scent — the scent of fuel, another tank to be drained, another metal carcase to be systematically dismembered. The supercharger roars, brute power unrestrained. Ah...
He can see them now in the mirror, make out what they look like. There are three vehicles behind him, closing up the distance. One of them, a big powerful bike, has a passenger riding pillion. The rider is all black leather and metal — metal shoulder pads, a breastplate — and his head, bare except for a pair of goggles, is shaven except for a bright red swatch on top. A Mohawk, this one who veers his bike in an attempt to cut Max off from the inside, but Max is ahead of him, blocking him, forcing him to swing back and lose ground. Almost naked, the pillion passenger is tightly hugging the rider, leaning with the movement of the bike, his long golden hair being whipped back by the airstream.
There is the bike, then the chrome and brown street racer, and then the dune buggy covered with animal skins. The noise of the engines hammers through the rippling heat. Max swings the black-on-black — the old pursuit car from his police days —from side to side, forestalling the efforts of his pursuers to creep up inside of him. The heat, and the noise, and beside him, the dog whimpers a little. The tiredness has gone now; the adrenalin shoots through him like quicksilver, the shrieking in his ears, his head full of the sound that seems to be punched into it through dozens of holes, and a curtain of red dust at times partially obscuring the three vehicles close behind him.’
A bend, and taking it close on the inner side, the dune buggy coming around it in a wide sweep, and the street racer, cutting in between it and Max. The bike has fallen behind.
The road rises. His foot hard down, Max takes the rise, and for an instant, the briefest fraction of time, it seems as if his wheels have left the ground, and he is airborne. Then there is a thud, a bump, and the car is slewing to one side of the road. A wrench on the wheel to correct the drift, and at the bottom of the rise, blocking the road, a tangle of wrecked vehicles, one of them a trailer down on one crumpled wheel, cars that had been torn apart, wreckage everywhere, scattered and strewn across the road.
No time to decide, or even to slacken speed, just take it as it comes, trust to luck — always trust to luck, and luck had always brought him through in the past, maybe it would again... No time to think even, with the heart feeling large and tight in the chest, the marauders only a matter of a few yards behind him. To slow down now.. .no chance. The supercharger drums and throbs, there is the reek of petrol. His reflexes as finely tuned as the great engine over which he has taken such loving care, tinkering, adjusting, polishing, treating it like a baby, and now.., now...
The landscape lifts and turns half a degree or more, seems to be vibrating, breaking up.. .the trailer looms, fills the windscreen, and then, once again, a matter of only feet away, a wrench on the wheel, and he is locked into a sweeping curve to the right, past the trailer, and through the wrecks that are scattered around it, cannoning off them, plough­ing through them with a tortured scream of rending metal.
Still going, pushing the wrecks out of the way, dis­lodging them and pushing them deeper into the dust, which shears up from beneath the spinning wheels, and behind him, as he comes around in the curve, slamming broadside into another rusted hulk, bouncing off it, forcing a way through, the no-name dog barking furiously, jumping up and down in agitation in the kiddies’ seat — behind him, then to one side as he pulls the car out of the curve, he sees the bike with the Mohawk and golden passenger flying through the air with a sort of effortless grace, swooping through the air like some great bird clear over the trailer, and in that quivering instant before it hits the ground, lurches a little, then righting itself, begins to weave its way through the wrecks, it seems as if it is stuck there, suspended against the sky from which the heat has drained all color.
The road racer doesn’t quite make it over the trailer. It knocks against the trailer, then spinning, clips one of the wrecks, swerves, bumps another wreck, the engine racing furiously, dust swirling. Max has straightened out of the curve, and is heading across the open country, aware now that the third vehicle, the dune buggy, has managed to avoid the wreckage, and has veered off to the right in an attempt to head him off.
Then Max is swinging back to the highway again, ducking in between it and the buggy, which cuts sharply in after him. The bike and the racer have already left the wreckage behind them, and are heading up the highway towards the point where Max rejoins it, with the buggy bouncing across the rough terrain behind him.
“You’re a good kid, Max. One day you’ll make a good cop.”
One day. Maybe it was something then to be a good cop. Maybe it meant something to be a good cop. One thought about cops in those days, bad people and cops, the division not always so clear cut, but they existed, and people talked about law and order, the need to keep order, but that was at a time when there were laws to be kept, although they were fast disappearing even then, those laws to which people — those good people, law-abiding people — still paid some sort of lip service, because old habits died hard. A good cop. One day, Max you’ll make a good cop.
The light had been reflected from the Chief’s high shaven skull. It had gleamed on black leather. Super­imposed on the harsh, dry landscape that is rushing up at him, the same monotonous landscape, and with his pursuers, the marauders, gaining on him again on this long, flat stretch of road, the Chief’s face, the thick neck, the broad shoulders and powerful forearms, that ugly, lined face, and the nose that had been battered so many times in the years he had been in the forêe that it was now a squat, shapeless blob spread across his face, which made his flinty eyes appear far too close together, and the mouth too small to balance it. The Chief, worn out, disillusioned, no longer even making a token attempt to keep up the morale in his disintegrating force.
“I don’t know any more, Max. I don’t know any more about one goddam thing.”
Thoughts and speed, and everything falling apart, tires gripping the road surface, and then, suddenly, the loud whooping sound that rises up from some­where beneath the dashboard of this racing charger, and which seems to drop around him in waves, like hoops that are being thrown over him — hoops that become tighter and tighter as they drop over him. Christ, it’s the fuel, running low — the alarm letting him know the fuel is running low — and, shit, there’s nothing for it but to cut out the supercharger, and once that has been cut out... No choice. Take it as it comes. Good cop, Max.
Slowing down now. The alarm has faded away, but the echoes remain, flying around inside the head. As the speed falls away, it seems now that Max is crawling along. With speed there is life, but without speed, just going along, 100 or more, it is as if an essential part of Max has fallen away, choked away by the whoops from the alarm. So. . .So the dog has crawled under the seat. The dog knows there will be trouble. Max’s relaxed posture is -deceptive; every nerve end is keyed up. It has
happened before, many times before, more times than he can remember, even if he wants to remem­ber — and it will happen again. Expectant, waiting, the marauders fast closing the distance, the bike coming up on the passenger’s side, looming up in the corner of Max’s vision — another nomad biker with his golden lover clinging tightly to him as they draw abreast. Brief impressions, disjointed and flick­15
ering, the biker raising something and aiming it at him, a bow it looks like, a crossbow, but there’s hardly time for Max to notice this, to really register what it is the fiery Mohawk is aiming at him, as the road racer is drawing up on his side, the passenger in the road racer also raising a weapon, and glancing at it, Max can see that it is a gas-powered porta-pak gun from the large rounded barrel of which protrude six metal arrows. The finger tightens on the trigger. Bracing himself, Max hits the brakes.
The locked tires screech their protest as the car skids until it is almost at right-angles to the road. Caught unawares, both the bike and the road racer surge past him, just as the porta-pak looses its deadly arrows. The car is still shuddering as Max lines it up with the road again, as two of the arrows smack use­lessly against its side, and as one of them thuds into the fleshy upper part of the biker’s arm. The bike swerves, and leaves the road, weaving erratically across the dry, rutted ground, and that’s one of them out of the picture for the moment, and maybe not for very long at that, once the rider has picked up his balance again and brought his bike back onto the road. The dune buggy is still coming in across country to try and head Max off and the road racer just in front of him, so now that he has a slight advantage, it’s time for Max to take the initiative. He can do something now, with that racer just in front of him; he needn’t feel so useless, so much the victim.
Changing down, hitting the supercharger again, and that low rumble rising to a high scream, that great surge of power that lifts him and carries him forward, fast closing the distance between him and the racer, ramming into the rear of the racer, a bump, a jolt, the metallic clash of metal on metal, wheels screaming, again, and again, drawing back slightly, then hurling the raging machine against the racer — and now there is another intersection ahead of them, and a long road rig abandoned at the side of the road. The dune buggy is cutting right in now; it has almost reached the intersection, where besides the road rig, there is a mass of debris scattered about, junk, bits of furniture, broken things. Max eases back again, nerves tingling now, a delicious feeling, in action, judgment cool, calculating his chances, then foot down again, the pedal pressed right down to the floorboards, flush with the floor­boards, the engine howling as the car springs forward again, ramming the road racer, hurling it away just as the speeding dune buggy bumps back onto the road.
Beautiful. What could be more beautiful, or satisfy­ing to see the road racer smash into the rear of the dune buggy, catching it, lifting it and flinging it away like a broken toy? What music there is in the echo of that scream that has come from the racer just as it hit the buggy, and sent it spinning like a top into the side of the road rig. There is poetry, surely, of a rough and savage kind — and it seems that the action has slowed down enough to give emphasis_ to those curves and parabolas that are so intricately described — in the sight of the road racer sliding around in a half-circle and ramming hard into a power pole, which splinters and snaps with the force of the impact, and slowly, slowly topples onto the road. There is no sign of movement from the road racer, and the dune buggy is nothing more than a pile of twisted, crumpled metal beneath the implacable bulk of the road rig. A wheel spins, dust settles along with the silence.
Throwing on the handbrake, Max — the valiant, the victor — swings the black on black around in a tight turn, and pulls up in the middle of the intersection. Winners and losers, victors and vanquished. Fuel is streaming from the ruptured tank of the dune buggy. Swinging himself out of the car, Max reaches into the back and pulls out a jerry can. A soft moan­ing sound is coming from the crumpled buggy. The spilt fuel is forming a widening rainbow pool on the bitumen. Bending over the broken fuel tank, Max wedges the jerry can beneath the gushing fuel, he whips the bandana he is wearing from around his neck, and begins to mop up the gasolene from the bitumen with it.
“For without fuel, they were nothing. They had built for themselves a house of straw...”
The gushing fuel rattles the can. Max squeezes the soaking bandana out into the can. The moaning from inside the dune buggy is barely audible now. That, and the gasolene drumming into the can are the only sounds.
But, suddenly, there is another sound, a shrill whistle that slices keenly through the silence and desolation. Max looks up, and sees, on the crest of a low hill overlooking the intersection, the scarlet Mohawk straddling his bike and grinning down at him, a figure in black leather and metal that glints in the harsh light. Still with his arms around him, the golden boy’s face is expressionless; it might have been chiselled from stone, yet how sensual are its lines. They stare at each for a long, vibrant moment, these two, wandering Max and the grinning Mohawk, and then, slowly, deliberately, his eyes never leaving Max, the figure on the hill raises one hand, and closing it around the haft of the arrow that is embedded in his arm, gives it a sharp tug, and the arrow comes free. A trickle of blood runs down his arm from the wound. Triumphantly, the biker nomad holds up the arrow, brandishing it at Max as he screams his defiance and hatred of the man who has, for the time being, outwitted him.
Then, slipping the arrow into the quiver at his hip, the biker guns the motor, and swinging the bike away, disappears from the crest of the hill. The sound of the engine fades into the distance, and Max is alone.

History > Documents

submitted by TIME Magazine on 18.08.2006

Mr Dimitri Comino.The Great Frame-Up.Time magazine. Nov. 23, 1953.

All over Britain last week, workmen were using a strange new construction material that looked amazingly like sections of a toy Erector set and worked much the same way. The material was the Dexion Slotted Angle, a slotted steel strip bent to form a right angle and designed to be bolted on to other strips ad infinitum. Ever since it went on sale five years ago, it has been used as the frame for everything from waste baskets to cradles for huge water towers. Among its most enthusiastic buyers is the U.S. Air Force, which uses it on air bases in England and North Africa in parts racks, filing cabinets, plane-boarding ramps and platforms for servicing aircraft. In Burma, native soldiers sleep on bed frames built of Dexion, and in India the government is considering using it in slum-clearance projects. Last week enough Dexion to frame 20 three-room houses and a twelve-bed hospital was en route to earthquake-stricken Greek islands to replace ruined buildings.

"Mr. Why." This great frame-up against such conventional building materials as wood and concrete is the brainchild of Demetrius Comino, a 50-year-old Greek-Australian turned Briton. Comino himself has capitalized mightily on both ingenuity and opportunity since he went to England in 1920 to study engineering. He got into the printing business, naming his company Krisson, Ltd., after the ancient Greek word for better. He soon was making it live up to the claim. While a partner ran the plant, Comino spent his time making efficiency studies and asking so many questions that employees nicknamed him "Mr. Why."

Dexion was the answer to one of Comino's questions: How can you build storage racks for paper and type that could be knocked down quickly and reused? By 1947, Comino's experiments had resulted in Dexion (the ancient Greek word for right). As a framing material for construction, Dexion is stronger for its weight than wood, can be stored in 6% of the space needed for two-by-fours, and when bolted together needs no cross beams or supports to hold large weights. Labor savings in construction run as high as 75%. Sales were soon so brisk that Comino opened a new factory in northwest London and three other shops around the city. By last year Dexion's gross had shot up to more than $2,800,000 annually.

Periodically, Comino's enthusiasm for efficiency breaks out in plantwide campaigns in which employees are asked to submit reports analyzing their jobs. Comino regarded one such report—on how to sweep the floor—as such a "masterly" study that he eventually upped its 16-year-old author from apprentice to production manager.

Houses for $850. Though Comino has continually enlarged his London plants, built a new factory in Belgium and licensed Chicago's Acme Steel Co. to manufacture Dexion in the U.S., he has never-been able to catch up with demand. It will take years to exploit Dexion's biggest market, housing. A three-room house, like the experimental models shipped to Greece, could be erected in 160 man hours by inexperienced labor, using tin roofs and asbestos-board walls on a Dexion frame. Comino believes that he could sell it profitably in England for only $850. Using such native materials as wood, adobe brick or stone in backward areas, Comino believes that it would be even cheaper.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 10.06.2006

Anti-dago.

Anti-dago.
Hallett, Smith's Weekly, 11 August, 1945.

The Old Folks at Home.

News item: Dr Evatt, in reply to a question, stated that applications for purchase or lease of land had been granted to 3507 aliens or naturalised subjects.



200 In the Shade.

In March 1988, Bondi identity and former Bulletin journalist, David Swain was commissioned by John Pinder to organise an exhibition for the Melbourne International Comedy Festival. The Exhibition was presented at the State Library of Victoria, and featured 200 years of cartoon depictions of Aborigines.

Later in 1988, William Collins Pty Ltd, published a book of the cartoons called 200 In The Shade.

The cartoons reflected Australia's racist prejudices, attitudes, and fears; underlying attitudes that still persist.

Swain:

"Cartoonists share these prejudices and fears but, by virtue of a special talent, they transmute them through the art form of pictorial humour.

To make fun of people is to exercise power. We all do it, and feel superior to our victims.

Cartoonists specialise in making fun of people. The art of cartooning is popular largely because it articulates this apparently universal need. Cartoonists exercise their power with kindness or with cruelty, and all points in between. The power of the cartoonists in this book to mock the differences of others has been aided by a particular history.

During our years as a self conscious colony lurching towards independence, we pursued a policy of White Australia.

As late as 1961, The Bulletin's slogan was 'Australia for the White Man'. It is hardly surprising that racism flourished, embraced by labourers and the literati.

Cartoonists are people of their times who absorb the common asumptions. They are also influenced by their fellow workers - journalists, editors and owners of the press."

The dago's

The exhibition was supposed to feature cartoons about aborigines, and to reflect both the cartoonists - and by extension - the average Australians, attitude towards aborigines.

4 of the cartoons, (dates 1921, 1930, 1945)of which this is one, however, had as their subject the (black(?)) "dago" - all anti-Greek; and 3 of them - in a real sense - anti-Kytherian.

It was the Kytherians after all who started the oyster saloons. There is considerable history, and a number of photographs pertaining to the oyster saloons on kythera-net.

There are also a number of documents on the site that indicate that Greeks were considered as non-whites. Passenger records and entry visa's for Greeks were not stamped "white" - in the era in question.

These cartoons indicate very clearly the level of antipathy of the general Australian population towards Greeks that prevailed at the time.

The stereoype depicted in these cartoons would last at least 2 generations.

Your grandparents and parents may have suffered because of prejudices of this kind.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 10.06.2006

Dago opens the oyster.

'Australia is my oyster, and I will open'it', say the Dago.

Finey, Smith's Weekly, cover, 29 March, 1930.

'Dago' comes from the Spanish for 'James' - Diego. It was a term for Greeks and Italians, but also included Spaniards and Portuguese.


200 In the Shade.

In March 1988, Bondi identity and former Bulletin journalist, David Swain was commissioned by John Pinder to organise an exhibition for the Melbourne International Comedy Festival. The Exhibition was presented at the State Library of Victoria, and featured 200 years of cartoon depictions of Aborigines.

Later in 1988, William Collins Pty Ltd, published a book of the cartoons called 200 In The Shade.

The cartoons reflected Australia's racist prejudices, attitudes, and fears; underlying attitudes that still persist.

Swain:

"Cartoonists share these prejudices and fears but, by virtue of a special talent, they transmute them through the art form of pictorial humour.

To make fun of people is to exercise power. We all do it, and feel superior to our victims.

Cartoonists specialise in making fun of people. The art of cartooning is popular largely because it articulates this apparently universal need. Cartoonists exercise their power with kindness or with cruelty, and all points in between. The power of the cartoonists in this book to mock the differences of others has been aided by a particular history.

During our years as a self conscious colony lurching towards independence, we pursued a policy of White Australia.

As late as 1961, The Bulletin's slogan was 'Australia for the White Man'. It is hardly surprising that racism flourished, embraced by labourers and the literati.

Cartoonists are people of their times who absorb the common asumptions. They are also influenced by their fellow workers - journalists, editors and owners of the press."

The dago's

The exhibition was supposed to feature cartoons about aborigines, and to reflect both the cartoonists - and by extension - the average Australians, attitude towards aborigines.

4 of the cartoons, (dates 1921, 1930, 1945)of which this is one, however, had as their subject the (black(?)) "dago" - all anti-Greek; and 3 of them - in a real sense - anti-Kytherian.

It was the Kytherians after all who started the oyster saloons. There is considerable history, and a number of photographs pertaining to the oyster saloons on kythera-net.

There are also a number of documents on the site that indicate that Greeks were considered as non-whites. Passenger records and entry visa's for Greeks were not stamped "white" - in the era in question.

These cartoons indicate very clearly the level of antipathy of the general Australian population towards Greeks that prevailed at the time.

The stereoype depicted in these cartoons would last at least 2 generations.

Your grandparents and parents may have suffered because of prejudices of this kind.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 10.06.2006

Steaka da oyst

Stan Cross, cartoonist.
Smith's Weekly, 1921.

'Steaka da oyst' = Steak and oysters, and was a facetiously racist label for Greeks and Italians many of whom owned restaurants. Mr 'Huse' refers to Prime Minister, Billy Hughes.

Official(examining applicant for naturalization): Who is Prime Minister?
Steaka Da Oyst: Mista Huse.
Official: Now, could you, as an alien, become Prime Minister of Australia?
Steaka Da Oyst: Mista, you haf excoosa me, plees. I gotta da good job already at da gasworks.


200 In the Shade.

In March 1988, Bondi identity and former Bulletin journalist, David Swain was commissioned by John Pinder to organise an exhibition for the Melbourne International Comedy Festival. The Exhibition was presented at the State Library of Victoria, and featured 200 years of cartoon depictions of Aborigines.

Later in 1988, William Collins Pty Ltd, published a book of the cartoons called 200 In The Shade.

The cartoons reflected Australia's racist prejudices, attitudes, and fears; underlying attitudes that still persist.

Swain:

"Cartoonists share these prejudices and fears but, by virtue of a special talent, they transmute them through the art form of pictorial humour.

To make fun of people is to exercise power. We all do it, and feel superior to our victims.

Cartoonists specialise in making fun of people. The art of cartooning is popular largely because it articulates this apparently universal need. Cartoonists exercise their power with kindness or with cruelty, and all points in between. The power of the cartoonists in this book to mock the differences of others has been aided by a particular history.

During our years as a self conscious colony lurching towards independence, we pursued a policy of White Australia.

As late as 1961, The Bulletin's slogan was 'Australia for the White Man'. It is hardly surprising that racism flourished, embraced by labourers and the literati.

Cartoonists are people of their times who absorb the common asumptions. They are also influenced by their fellow workers - journalists, editors and owners of the press."

The dago's

The exhibition was supposed to feature cartoons about aborigines, and to reflect both the cartoonists - and by extension - the average Australians, attitude towards aborigines.

4 of the cartoons, however,(dates 1921, 1930, 1945), of which this is one, had as their subject the (black(?)) "dago" - all anti-Greek; and 3 of them - in a real sense - anti-Kytherian.

It was the Kytherians after all who started the oyster saloons. There is considerable history, and a number of photographs, pertaining to the oyster saloons on kythera-net.

There are also a number of documents on the site that indicate that Greeks were considered as non-whites. Passenger records and entry visa's for Greeks were not stamped "white" - in the era in question.

These cartoons indicate very clearly the level of antipathy of the general Australian population towards Greeks that prevailed at the time.

The stereoype depicted in these cartoons would last at least 2 generations.

Your grandparents and parents may have suffered because of prejudices of this kind.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 11.06.2006

Super-Dago

Finey, Smith's Weekly, 30 July 1921.

Verse by 'Augustus Blowflyopoulos'

The Super-Dago

Speero, I tink de
greatest man that ever
carried a dish.
He know the ancient Grecian gods and
How to cook da fish.
He talks the Frinch, da Span', da Ing'
and once when bet a hat,
He open fifty-seven oyst', in seexty seconds flat.
He read da potes an' racing news, he
catch the deep-sea cray',
An' never strike, or wash his neck, or take a holiday.
Or drink da beer or chase da tart or
gamb' da card for keep -
I tink all night he sit and watch da
oyst' an' nevaire sleep!
He cut the bread and butt' so thin it pay
to give it free,
An' give short change to drunks so
neat it make you cry to see!
You talk Napoleon, Billy Hughes
Gambetta, - famous hero -
I tell you back-numbers put along
da side of Speero!
Why on' t'ing only show dat he da
grrrreates' man dat is;
Lars' year we get da crisis in da
oyster-selling biz, -
One day when blowfly buzz like hell an
much too hot da sun
Four barrell oyst' go bad and Jorich
he swoon an' yell, "We're done!"
But Speero strike do stum' and say
"By Jove, You wait a while",
And up an' fry da perished oyst' with
borax and phenyle
An' add da pepp', da must', da Worc'st,
da vinegar an' stock
And serve it up for sailor drunks to eat
at six o'clock.
It grow so dam-well popular, we double
price, you see,
Till one night come Inspect' an' roar,
"Here, what dis you gif me?"
Den Speero pass heem sum o' mon' -
and wink - "You go to Hell!"
Dis extra-special Rule Brittannia oystair
cokatel".
Caramba, fren', It touch da spot!
Inspect' withdraw for beer-oh:
Ya got to be as slipp' as feesh, to get
da best of Speero!
You talk da fight - to HEEM?? Bah
fool! You spar up to His Nibs.
He smile an' shake your paw an' put
da knife between your ribs.
I seen him pound da broken glass an''
mix it with the sago
To serve it in the stew for drunks that
call him bletty dago.
One time he wait six mont' to catch a
pug called Dirty Dave
Den push him over a cliff an' go and
dance upon his grave.
He fight da match with boxing-gloves
With piece a' lead frezed in
An' take an axe to fat police one time
and nearly WIN!
He carry seven knives for luck, he
crawl he stab he creep
He kick you when you stooping an' he
kill you when you sleep!
You don't get nothing in da change
When up against our hero -
I t'ink old Demsy'd perr-ish if he
picked da row with Speero!!
.

Augustus Blowflyopoulos.


200 In the Shade.

In March 1988, Bondi identity and former Bulletin journalist, David Swain was commissioned by John Pinder to organise an exhibition for the Melbourne International Comedy Festival. The Exhibition was presented at the State Library of Victoria, and featured 200 years of cartoon depictions of Aborigines.

Later in 1988, William Collins Pty Ltd, published a book of the cartoons called 200 In The Shade.

The cartoons reflected Australia's racist prejudices, attitudes, and fears; underlying attitudes that still persist.

Swain:

"Cartoonists share these prejudices and fears but, by virtue of a special talent, they transmute them through the art form of pictorial humour.

To make fun of people is to exercise power. We all do it, and feel superior to our victims.

Cartoonists specialise in making fun of people. The art of cartooning is popular largely because it articulates this apparently universal need. Cartoonists exercise their power with kindness or with cruelty, and all points in between. The power of the cartoonists in this book to mock the differences of others has been aided by a particular history.

During our years as a self conscious colony lurching towards independence, we pursued a policy of White Australia.

As late as 1961, The Bulletin's slogan was 'Australia for the White Man'. It is hardly surprising that racism flourished, embraced by labourers and the literati.

Cartoonists are people of their times who absorb the common asumptions. They are also influenced by their fellow workers - journalists, editors and owners of the press."

The dago's

The exhibition was supposed to feature cartoons about aborigines, and to reflect both the cartoonists - and by extension - the average Australians, attitude towards aborigines.

4 of the cartoons, (dates 1921, 1930, 1945)of which this is one, however, had as their subject the (black(?)) "dago" - all anti-Greek; and 3 of them - in a real sense - anti-Kytherian.

It was the Kytherians after all who started the oyster saloons. There is considerable history, and a number of photographs pertaining to the oyster saloons on kythera-net.

There are also a number of documents on the site that indicate that Greeks were considered as non-whites. Passenger records and entry visa's for Greeks were not stamped "white" - in the era in question.

These cartoons indicate very clearly the level of antipathy of the general Australian population towards Greeks that prevailed at the time.

The stereoype depicted in these cartoons would last at least 2 generations.

Your grandparents and parents may have suffered because of prejudices of this kind.

History > Documents

submitted by Dean Coroneos on 21.12.2007

Queensland Government Garden Certificate awarded to Theo Corones.

Theo lived at the time in Bargara, Queensland.

Theothosios Koroneos - Theo Corones - was sponsored to Australia, as a youth, by his maternal uncle George, and aunty Georgia, later of Beverley Hills.

He lost a leg to an infection in his early twenties.

Part of his rehabilitation involved art therapy. He later became quite a famous artist in "Kytherian" circles.

He settled in Sydney, and drove cabs for many decades, before attempting later in life to re-establish himself in Karavas, Kythera.

He returned to Australia, and retired to the North Queensland coastal town of Bargara.

Theo in Bargara, in his award winning garden

Theo, in 1931, as a 6 year old, alongside his mother, and two sisters

Theo as a groomsman at his Uncle Dimitri's wedding

Theo, in 1960, at age 35, alongside his brothers and sisters

History > Documents

submitted by Clarence River Historical Society on 30.05.2006

Langleys Cafe advertisement.

From, Grafton, the First 125 Civic Years, by John Moorhead.

History > Documents

submitted by Peter Bouras on 30.05.2006

Map of Grafton, NSW, Australia.

Showing its position on the mid-north coast of New South Wales.

The town of Grafton has a very long "Kytherian" history, and is home to the brilliant Clarence River Historical Society.

There are innumerable entries about Grafton at kythera-family.net.

History > Documents

submitted by Kytherian Cultural Exchange on 30.05.2006

Poster encouraging migrants to apply for Australian citizenship. 1960's.

It would be interesting to know how many Kytherians in Australia were encouraged to take up Australian citizenship as a result of viewing this, and other posters of its kind?

From the repository of the National Archives in Canberra.

The National Archives is an extraordinarily valuable resource, where many Kytherian-Australian documents and records are kept.

It would be interesting to undertake a systematic project to uncover this plethora of Kytherian information.

http://www.naa.gov.au/default.html

"The National Archives promotes good government recordkeeping and encourages community awareness and use of valuable Commonwealth records in its care. We have galleries, a reading room and offices in Canberra and a reading room and offices in each State capital and Darwin".

Main Switchboard (02) 6212 3600

Reference inquiries only 1300 886 881

Fax (02) 6212 3699

Email National Archives, here

About us

"Holding on to our history – that’s what the National Archives of Australia does. We care for valuable Commonwealth government records and make them available for present and future generations to use. Our recordkeeping standards help government to account to the public, ensuring that evidence is available to support people’s rights and entitlements and that future generations will have a meaningful record of the past.

Our collection

The records in our collection trace the events and decisions that shaped the nation. We hold the papers of Governors-General, Prime Ministers and Ministers. We have Cabinet documents, Royal Commission files and departmental records on defence, immigration, security and intelligence, naturalisation, and many other issues involving the federal government.

The main focus of our collection is records created since the formation of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. We also have some nineteenth-century records relating to functions that were transferred by the colonies to the Commonwealth government, including shipping and post offices.

While most records in the collection are files, we also have significant holdings of photographs, posters, maps, architectural drawings, films, playscripts, musical scores and sound recordings.

This vast collection is a rich resource for the study of Australian history, Australian society and the Australian people and is accessible to all. We welcome enquiries, and visitors to our reading rooms, and provide a range of databases, guides and leaflets to assist.

Our head office is located in Canberra and we have offices in each State capital and in Darwin. Our collection is dispersed in these offices across Australia. In addition to caring for our collection, we develop and tour exhibitions, publish books and guides to our collection and deliver educational programs.

Recordkeeping standards and advice

Australian Government agency staff and other recordkeeping professionals are valuable partners for the Archives in ensuring that all Australians can use Commonwealth records. Many records are now created in electronic forms that are harder to preserve and keep accessible over time. It is important to build systems that ensure valuable records survive. The Archives assists agencies by developing policies, standards, guidelines and providing training and advice about modern recordkeeping".