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General History

History > General History

There is a history in all men's lives.

William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616)

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History > General History

submitted by George Poulos on 18.06.2004

Antikythera mechanism 1

An Ancient Greek Computer

In 1901 divers working off the isle of Antikythera

- for Antikythera info-link, go to

- found the remains of a clocklike mechanism 2,000 years old. The mechanism now appears to have been a device for calculating the motions of stars and planets.

by Derek J. de Solla Price

History > General History

submitted by Peter Makarthis on 30.03.2004

Thomas Gallagher

And 51st King’s Own Light Infantry
Cerigo 1826-1828.

This is a portion of an article written by a descendent of Thomas Gallagher who served in the 51’st King’s Own Light Infantry from 1824. The original article was written by Donald Clow Gallagher of New Zealand and appeared in the March 2004 edition of Australian Family Tree Connections.

Thomas Gallagher was born near Roscommon in Ireland about 1805. Thomas was the son of a farmer and was ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 24.07.2006

Northern NSW - 12

North Western NSW – Walgett Plains and Backa Beyond


By common consent Bourke is where the line in the sand defines the start of the outback and where the locals boast that NSW’s highest official temperature of 51.7° C was recorded in 1910. Charlie Sklavos seems to have been the first Kytherian brave enough to chance it when he brought oysters here in the early years of WWI, but looks to have hightailed it back to Sydney for therapy sometime ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 24.07.2006

Northern NSW - 11

North Western NSW – Moree Plains


Too Hard.


Too Hard.


Anthony Emmanuel Travassaros tried his first café venture here, and gave the locals their first and only Greek experience, around the mid 1930s. He had heard the distress call in Travassarianika in 1924 and immediately caught the boat to Australia, following the signposts through Parkes, Trangie, Gilgandra ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 23.07.2006

Northern NSW - 10

North Western NSW – Namoi Valley


Andy and Nick Samios appear to be the first Kytherians to have discovered the place when they followed the swaggies’ trail from Narrabri in 1926. Nineteen year old Andy, his two brothers, Nick and George, and their father, Peter, had landed in early 1923 and gone direct to Narrabri to work for Archie Gavrili. Unfortunately Peter died a couple of months later, putting his sons on a fast track to independence. ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 23.07.2006

Northern NSW - 9

Lower New England


The Barrabarians were civilized in late 1905 by a subtle new twist to the euphoric fragrance of frying onions, that great cooking smell, wafting out of a shop in Queen Street. Standing at the stove was the Mylopotamian maestro, George Emmanuel Potiri, who had pinched his mother’s recipes in 1902, aged 20, and spent 3yrs adapting them at Tamworth and West Maitland with the help of his Andronicus cousins. Alas, he moved onto Walcha ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 26.03.2007

Northern NSW - 8

Central New England


Nick John Veneris (Hellen), 16yrs old when he landed from Gerakitianika in late 1900 with Anargyros Zakharis Panaretos of Gunnedah, could be the bloke advertising himself as ‘N. Venares, fruiterer’ in 1902/03. If so, he spent a couple of years in NSW before trekking into Queensland to establish an outpost at Bundaberg in 1903.

Coincidental with his disappearance was the arrival from Moree in 1903 of the Cordatos ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 23.07.2006

Northern NSW - 7

Upper New England Tablelands


The venerable firm of Venardo & Aroney founded a café here in 1906. Aroney was Theo Peter who landed in 1903, aged 21, and was granted a license to practice catering after 3yrs supervision at Inverell. He may be the brother of Nick Peter of Glen Innes and Moree and the other half of Aroni Bros, the colourful racing identities. Venardo is a mystery, but a likely rellie, 17yr old John Con Venardos, came here directly ...

History > General History

submitted by Rowan Parkes on 23.02.2004

Snow on Kythera in 2004

They say it’s seventeen years since the last proper snow fall on the island, and around one hundred and thirty years since there has been this much snow in Greece. The whole country has been snowed in, from the eve of Friday the thirteenth, and for the next few days everything came to a standstill. Schools closed, villages were snowed in, airports closed, roads were blocked. Meanwhile, on Kythera, we all celebrated a day off school, the pipes broke from the ice for what is probably the first time ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 21.07.2006

Northern NSW - 6

Upper Hunter Valley


Theo Harry Catsoulis, the farmer earlier of Grafton, Casino and Bellingen, came here with his family in the late war years and remained through to at least the early 1920s, perhaps retailing as well as growing produce, although Dimitri Efstathios Paspalas, who turned up at the same time, seems to have had the counter duties.

Envy of their farming lifestyle may have influenced Mick Emmanuel Psaltis to get out of ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 21.07.2006

Northern NSW - 5

The Hunter Region


Seventeen year old Mick Emmanuel Potiri led the Catering Corps into Cessnock in 1908 after a brief cadetship with his brother George on the Tablelands. Four and a half years later he passed command to Arthur Emmanuel Venardos and took a detachment to Queanbeyan where he established a new base for the bargain price of £600. His subordinate and shipmate, Peter Emmanuel Condoleon of Avlemonas, the brother-in-law of Mick’s first ...

History > General History

submitted by Rowan Parkes on 29.01.2004

The Virgin’s Fort

The sea sparkled and the roads were hazy in the heat as I walked up the alley steps in Chora towards the castle. It towers over the town, a landmark atop the mountain on the opposite side of which it is said you can see three seas: the Ionian, the Aegean and the Cretan Pelagos.

The historian for whom I was looking, Mrs. Eleni Xarou, was in her office. I had become interested in learning more about this familiar monument when Mrs. Xarou gave a party of us from my school a guided tour ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 21.07.2006

Northern NSW - 4

Mid North Coast


Looks like another rare town whose fortifications managed to hold out the encircling wagons of the Kytherians. Around 1914 a bloke named Arthur Kyriacos appears to have brought the first Greek café, although the farming sons of Michael Manousou of Mytilini and Mendooran had settled here earlier. George Hagepanos of Nafplia took over the café sometime during the war and George Theodoropoulos of Acrata sometime after.

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 21.07.2006

Northern NSW - 3

The Clarence District


Athanasios Anastasios Samios came down from Murwillumbah in early 1908, by then an old experienced hand aged 20, and was possibly a waiter for someone or other until establishing/acquiring his own restaurant in High Street about 6mths later, at which time he also scored a 160 acre parcel of Crown land. But unlike a lot of other Kytherians in the district he didn’t find farming one of the great joys in life and is believed to have ...

History > General History

submitted by Nickolas Tambakis on 30.09.2003

Cafe Society

The following is taken from an article written depicting early life of Greek migrants in cafes (Cafe Society) for the Illawarra Museum

The cafe society followed on from the general store of the late 19th Century early 20th Century. The general store had food as well as produce, clothing & hardware items. Towards the early 1920's there was a need to extend the variety of produce ie the emergence of the fruit shop & also make available prepared foods for demanding cliental such ...

History > General History

submitted by Petros Kominos on 07.10.2007

Kithira Philharmonic Orchestra

At Kithira, before the institution of the philharmonic orchestra there was not an organised musical group like the rest of Eptanisa. Small, poor, and isolated from the rest of Eptanisa, Kithira did not accept the western cultural influence as it happened with Corfu and Zakithos for instance. On the contrary, thanks to its geographical position, the north part of Kithira accepted musical influence from Peloponnese and the south part of the island accepted musical influence from Crete. Influences, ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 14.05.2005

Northern NSW - 2

The Tweed-Brunswick District


The first Greek presence came with the mysterious Nick Nicholoudes in 1905/06 when the place was barely established. But his was a short-lived venture and he disappeared within a year or so.

Theo Dimitri Bangi was the first clearly identifiable Kytherian when he came across from Lismore in 1913 and acquired a fruiterer's business, turning it into Bangalow's first Oyster Saloon and presenting the locals, predominately ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 26.03.2007

Northern NSW - 1

The Richmond District


Emmanuel Harry Mavris (Mavromikhail) acquired a cafe here in mid 1922, but who came before or after is still on the investigation list. He was 10yrs old when he left home in Piraeus, spending 7yrs in Egypt before arriving in Sydney in 1910. He went to Bangalow in 1920, but was burnt out 6mths later and moved to Murwillumbah with a bloke named Haros (Haropoulos) to take over one of Jack Aroney’s cafes. But when things started ...

History > General History

submitted by Peter Tsicalas on 14.05.2005

Settlement in Australia

The following overview of Kytherian settlement is plagiarized from the research of Charles Price, Hugh Gilchrist, Effie Alexakis, Leonard Janiszewski, Denis Conomos and Peter Vanges

The first Kytherians to raise the flag in Australia are reckoned to be Ioannis Melitas, Emmanouil Kritharis and Haralambos Menegas who allegedly came in the 1850s. No doubt there were other gold seekers, but the bloke credited with playing a major role in turning Kytherians in this new migration ...

History > General History

submitted by Site Administrator on 12.07.2003

Chapter 5: The Temple of Aphrodite

Many thanks to Peter Vanges and the Kytherian Association of Australia for their kind permission to reproduce this excerpt from Kythera, a History (1993), a hard cover book which is still available from the Association. For the contact information, please see the Associations section under "Culture".

There can be no doubt that the Minoans were aware of the value of Kythera as a stop-over port on the way to the Greek mainland. Subsequent evidence as to the location of ...